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Essays on trans, intersex, cis and other persons and topics from a trans perspective.......All human life is here.

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    Arnold-Lèon Leber was Swiss although born in Germany. Leber’s father disappeared during the Great War, and was replaced by a step-father given to drunkenness who in turn disappeared when Leber was 11.

    By then Leber was already praying, to God and to the fairies, to be turned into a girl.

    Leber completed high school and became a clothing salesman (a position that required an apprenticeship). In 1932 Leber was called up to do military service and was pleased to be assigned to be a nurse. However rheumatic fever brought this to an end, and Leber returned to selling women’s clothing. This facilitated cross-dressing although it remained very private.

    With the depression Leber was no longer able to earn enough, and was arrested 22 times for non-payment of debts and petty larceny. After release he worked for some time in Germany. On return he was arrested as a spy and served 18 months in gaol.

    After unsatisfactory sexual affairs with both men and woman, Leber was admitted to a psychiatric clinic in Berne. He threatened suicide if they did not turn him into a woman. He had read about such changes in a Prague newspaper – he read up on the scientific literature of the day about sex changes. The doctors regarded him as a morally defective transvestite, and were considering committing him to an institution. Warned of this he escaped to Geneva.

    A psychiatrist there treated Leber with psychotherapy supplemented with ovarian hormones, but without success. In 1941, he referred the patient to Dr Charles Wolf, the noted surgeon in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Leber threatened suicide if not changed into a woman. Dr Wolf was struck by Leber’s feminine contour of the body and her developed breasts. He agreed to operate. He did an orchiectomy in October 1941, a penectomy in January 1942 and a vaginoplasty in October 1942. The method was a variation on that of Dr WF Sneguireff of Paris who had created a vagina for a cis woman in 1898 using a segment of her rectum – Wolf used a segment of Leber’s intestine. The last operation did not go well and Leber had to spend five weeks in hospital and then another five weeks under close medical supervision at home.

    Leber, now using the name Arlette-Irène, quickly applied to the legal authorities that she be able to call herself a woman, and to dress so. Her psychiatrist formally supported this request. The court appointed two experts to study and to decide the matter. They were Dr Jean Clerc, Professor of Legal Medicine at the University of Neuchâtel, and Dr Otto Riggenbach, Psychiatric Consultant to the Physician-in-Chief of the Swiss Army. They took two years. They considered the precedent of Margrith Businger who was able to change her civic status in 1931 after only an orchiectomy.

    Clerc described Leber as a constitutional invert. As surgical changes were complete, the bearing of a masculine name was likely to be a source of continual trouble and a change of civic status was justified.

    Riggenbach found that Leber was a psychopathic personality with little moral sense, hysterical and masochistic tendencies, but would not have pursued a change of sex unless a powerful biological urge had driven him to do so. However he seemed much happier and calmer since assuming the role of a woman. Riggenbach said that Leber should be permitted to change civic status, but be kept under constant supervision and be forbidden to marry.

    The Cantonal Court decided that the issue was medical and not legal. By a majority of one, Leber’s request was granted (despite the refusal of the judge to sign the verdict). Riggenbach’s constraints were not imposed. Leber’s civic status was changed to female, she was removed from the voters’ roll (Swiss women did not get the vote until 1971), and she got a partial tax refund.

    For two years she was unemployed, but then found a full-time job in Biel/Bienne.

    In 1956, Riggenbach evaluated her and concluded: ‘The operation, on the one part, combined with the permission of the authorities to change her civic status, on the other, has turned an unstable and unhappy individual into a useful and contented member of society’.

     It is not known what happened to Mme Leber after that.

    • Eugene de Savitsch. Homosexuality, Transvestism and Change of Sex. Springfield Ill: Charles C. Thomas 1958: Chp 10, 11.
    • Katrina C Rose. “Desperately Seeking Arlette (and the Precedent She Set)”. Online.
    • Annette Runte. Biographische Operationen: Diskurse der Transsexualität. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1996: 528-9, 569, 573, 579. 

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    Charles Wolf was a prominent surgeon in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the famed watch-making town in the canton of Neuchâtel, in French-speaking Switzerland.

    In 1941 he received a referral from a Geneva psychiatrist who had treated Arlette Leber with psychotherapy supplemented with ovarian hormones, but without success. Leber, who had read of earlier surgical sex changes, threatened suicide if not so changed. Dr Wolf was struck by Leber’s feminine contour of the body and her developed breasts. He agreed to operate. He did an orchiectomy in October 1941, a penectomy in January 1942 and a vaginoplasty in October 1942. The method was that of Dr WF Sneguireff of Paris who had created a vagina for a cis woman in 1898 using a segment of her rectum – Wolf used a segment of Leber’s intestine. The operation did not go well and Leber had to spend five weeks in hospital and then another five weeks under close medical supervision at home. In 1944 a Cantonal Court approved her petition for a change of civic status to female.

    Wolf’s next trans patient is known only as S. S., born 1908, despite a strong yearning to be female from an early age had married, and they had a son in 1935. In 1947 S. did an auto-penectomy with an axe, and a summoned surgeon did an emergency completion. In 1951, Dr Wolf put finishing touches to the plastic procedures. However vaginoplasty was not deemed to be necessary. Despite being married and a father, S. was granted a change of civic status in 1951.

    J. is the name given to an Italian tailor of female clothing who had moved to Switzerland, because they knew ‘how to do that sort of thing’. While living in Geneva, he heard of the work of Dr Wolf, and rushed to La Chaux-de-Fonds and secured an appointment. J. like Leber threatened suicide if denied surgery. Despite financial problems (J. being Italian was not financed by the Swiss state), an orchiectomy and a penectomy had been done by July 1951. J. continued to pester Wolf and his colleagues until they agreed to do a vaginoplasty, which was done in October 1953. However the sutures did not hold properly and J. was left with a small unhealed area that was still present in January 1956.

    Dr Wolf comments in his appendix to de Savitsch’s book:

    “A good prognosis can only be made in the case of those true transvestites whose sexual appetite is very slight, and whose modest ambitions may save them from any lack of affective satisfaction. Such patients will be happy after the operation, because their occupations and social environment will at last be in harmony with their nature. The patient who dreams of leading a woman’s life after undergoing the operation is likely to regret his decision bitterly. Only those who propose to become old maids can submit to the operation without fear of the consequences.” …
    “Once it has been decided that there is a proper case for a change of sex and civic status, castration and amputation of the penis are necessary and, in my opinion, sufficient. Plastic surgery to provide an artificial vagina is a useless luxury: the operation involves considerable risk; if it is to remain serviceable in spite of the natural tendency for the tissues to retract, it will require constant care; even then will it ever be used? If used, it will certainly give more pain than pleasure. For the man who has been turned into a woman, the artificial vagina will be a purely mental satisfaction.”
    • Eugene de Savitsch. Homosexuality, Transvestism and Change of Sex. Springfield Ill: Charles C. Thomas 1958: 60-71, 80, 83, 113-118.

    In my timeline of transgender surgery, I stated that Colin Markland at Minnesota Medical School was the first surgeon to use an intestinal segment in creating a vagina for a trans woman. This was wrong in that he was pre-dated by Charles Wolf. The timeline has been corrected.

    In the first quote from Wolf he says of a trans woman, "his decision".  This would be a translation from the French "sa décision" which can be translated as his or her decision.   However most doctors in the 1950s did use male pronouns for trans women.

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    Perkins did a dissertation on transvestism and transsexuality at Macquarie University in Sydney in 1981 – one the very first by an openly trans woman.

    She was also one of the members of the newly founded Australian Transsexual Association. She approached Rev. Bill Crews of the Wayside Chapel Crisis Centre to ask for a regular meeting place. Weekly support meetings were arranged.

    Roberta’s book The Drag Queen Scene: Transsexuals in Kings Cross, a study of 146 lives based on her dissertation came out in 1983. This was read by Frank Walker, New South Wales Labor Assembly person and at that time Minister for Youth and Community Services.

    In July, he invited her to come in and talk, which led to a grant of $80,000 which was used to open a centre, Tiresias House, at 75 Morgan Street, Petersham, Sydney – its 12 bed spaces were filled immediately, and had to be converted to 16 by using the lounge as a bedroom. In December that year, Walker officially opened the centre.

    Within a few years, the centre has expanded to four houses, one of which was registered as a halfway house for ex-convicts on parole. A residential nurse and a community worker were employed. Six years later it was renamed the Gender Centre.

    Perkins left Tiresias House in 1985, and went on to write and subsequently publish books and articles in peer-reviewed journals on trans women and sex workers. She was involved in the struggle for decriminalization of sex work in New South Wales and Australia.

    Roberta died aged 78.

    Publications by Roberta Perkins:
    • The Third Sex and Sanctified Persons: A Cross-Cultural Survey, Comparison and Analysis of Transvestism and Transsexuality. Macquarie University BA Hons Thesis 1981.
    • The Drag Queen Scene: Transsexuals in Kings Cross. George Allen & Unwin, 1983.
    • With Nikki Searant & Linda Tyne. Transsexualism: An Overview : Understanding the Transsexual.: Collective of Australian Transsexuals, Australian Transsexual Association, 1983.
    • With Garry Bennett. Being a Prostitute: Prostitute Women and Prostitute Men. Allen & Unwin, 1985.
    • A History, Manifesto, and a Report on the Proposed Welfare Services of the Australian Prostitutes' Collective. The Collective, 1985.
    • Female Prostitutes in Visible Prostitution in Inner-City Sydney. The author, 1985.
    • Female Prostitution in Sydney an Overview: An Information Document on Female Prostitution and Prostitute Women of Sydney. Australian Prostitutes Collective (N.S.W.), 1985.
    • "Working Girls": Normality and Diversity Among Female Prostitutes in Sydney. Macquarie University MA Hons Thesis, 1988.
    • Interviewed by Phil Jarratt. "The working girl's friend. -Interview with Roberta Perkins, founder of the Australian Prostitutes Collective". Bulletin (Sydney). 140-141,143-144, 13 September 1988.
    • "Wicked Women Or Working Girls: The Prostitute on the Silver Screen". Media Information Australia, 51, 1989: 28-34.
    • "Working Girls in ‘Wowserville’: Prostitute Women in Sydney Since 1945". In Richard Kennedy. Australian Welfare: Historical Sociology. Macmillan, 1989: 362-389.
    • Working Girls: Prostitutes, Their Life and Social Control. Australian Inst. of Criminology, 1991.
    • With A. Griffin, & J. Jakobsen. Transgender Lifestyles and HIV/AIDS Risk. University of New South Wales, 1994.
    • With G. Prestage, R. Sharp & Frances Lovejoy. Sex Work, Sex Workers in Australia. University of New South Wales Press, 1994.
    • With Frances Lovejoy. "Healthy and Unhealthy Life Styles of Female Brothel Workers and Call Girls (Private Sex Workers) in Sydney". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 20, 5, 1996: 512-6.
    • “The Drag Queen Scene: Transsexuals in Kings Cross". In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing. Routledge 1996: 53-62.
    • With Frances Lovejoy. Call Girls: Private Sex Workers in Australia. University of Western Australia Press, 2007.
    About Roberta Perkins
    • Katherine Cummings. “Vale Roberta Perkins (1940-2018)” Gender Centre, 2018. Online.
    • “'Trailblazer' to be remembered in Sydney”. Australian Associated Press, 28 June 2018. Online.


    It is a shame that Roberta's books are so hard to find.

    She was a pioneer in what we now accept as normal, that trans people write about trans people, but until the 1980s this was regarded as heretical, and writings by trans persons were dismissed simply because the person was trans.

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    The full tale is still not told.   These items will be added to the full timeline, and are published here so that they will be noticed.

    Netherlands, Arnheim Municipal Hospital 1959 – 

    plastic surgeon S.T. Woudstra did a phalloplasty for a trans man. This was published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine resulting in letters of protest and questions in Parliament. Woudstra never did a second such surgery.

    Japan. Nippon Medical School Hospital 1950-1. 

    Akiko Nagai had an orchiectomy, a penectomy and breast augmentation.

    Japan Tokyo - 1964. 

    Gynecologist Taro Kono performed sex change operations on three trans women at a Tokyo clinic — and was arrested the following year and charged with violations of the Eugenics and Motherhood Protection Act of 1948, as  well as an  unrelated  violation of the Controlled  Substances  Act.  In 1969 he was found guilty of all charges , sentenced to two years and fined Ɏ400,000. The case attached a stigma to transsexualism and made it taboo for medical professionals for many years to provide adequate care or even information. This lasted until the late 1990s.

    Billings & Urban

    A history of transgender surgery that I did not consult for my transgender surgery timeline was,
    • Dwight B. Billings and Thomas Urban. “The Socio-Medical Construction of Transsexualism: An Interpretation and Critique”. Social Problems, 29, 3, Feb., 1982: 266-282.
    This was reprinted in In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds), Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing, Routledge 1996: 99-117, and various other places. It is much cited.

    Here is the abstract:
    “This article examines transexualism and its treatment by sex-reassignment surgery. Physicians have drawn upon their previous experience with hermaphrodites and the psychological benefits of elective surgery to legitimate sex-change surgery for what they view as a distinct patient population, transexuals. We demonstrate that transexualism is a socially constructed reality which only exists in and through medical practice. Furthermore, we contend that sex-change surgery reflects and extends late-capitalist logics of reification and commodification, while simultaneously reaffirming traditional male and female gender roles.”
    The paper closes with:
    “But rather than support contemporary movements aimed at reorganising gender and parenting roles and repudiating the either/or logic of gender development, sex-change proponents support sex-reassignment surgery. By substituting medical terminology for political discourse, the medical profession has indirectly tamed and transformed a potential wildcat strike at the gender factory”.
    This was published only three years after Raymond’s The Transsexual Empire, and agrees with it that transsexuals would not exist without pushy profit-oriented doctors.  !!

    Billings & Urban are not incorrect in what they write, although they twist the interpretation as indicated. They are extremely US-centric and have no interest at all in the work done by Gillies, Fogh-Andersen, Burou, Randel, Steiner or Ratnam. What facts they do have that are not in my timeline are those relating to the opposition by psychiatrists. That is another tale. I am first concentrating on the surgeons who made transgender surgery what it is.

    However there are two items in their footnotes which are not mentioned anywhere else.

    1) “Thomas Urban was a participant observer for three years (1978–80) in a sex-change clinic”.

    But they do not say which one or otherwise elaborate. Did he leave, as did Grant Williams from the Charing Cross Clinic, because he disagreed with the program? This is an unknown.

    2) Footnote 8 reads:

    “Other university hospitals, such as the University of Minnesota’s, began surgical treatment at roughly the same time but avoided public disclosure. In addition, a few operations were secretly performed in the 1950s at the University of California at San Francisco. We have learned that Cook County Hospital in Chicago was performing sex-change operations as early as 1947, predating Jorgensen’s famous European surgery by five years.”

    We know that Elmer Belt (not mentioned at all in Billings & Urban) was doing such operations at the University of California at Los Angeles in the 1950s. Do they have the wrong city, or is this something lost to history?  Louise Lawrence worked with Alfred Kinsey and Harry Benjamin in San Francisco in the 1950s.   If these surgeries happened there is strange that neither Lawrence nor Benjamin knew about them.  The Langley Porter Clinic, while admitting that psychotherapy did not work, generally would not recommend surgery, although it is said that they did arrange surgery in a couple of cases.  Dr Frank Hinman, urologist, author of  “Advisability of Surgical Reversal of Sex in Female Pseudohermaphroditism”, 1951, was brought in in 1953 to save Caren Ecker after an auto-orchiectomy, which was felt to require a penectomy. 

    I cannot find any account of transgender surgery at Cook County Hospital in 1947. Orion Stuteville who did transgender surgery at Cook County and Northwestern University Medical School twenty years later was already a surgeon there, but in the dental school. Was it he who did the transgender surgery, or someone else?   Harry Benjamin had requested Max Thorek, a renowned surgeon in Chicago to do an operation, but, after consulting his lawyer, he declined. Again what Billings and Urban are referring to seems to be lost to history.

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    Steve John Kern was born in Santa Rosa, California, and raised the youngest in a family of six kids, all of whom played musical instruments. Steve sang, and learned to play trumpet, trombone, French Horn, Baritone and tuba. From 7th grade he was teaching music.

    He did a degree in Social Work and Music Therapy, and developed programs for those with physical and mental disabilities, and a 135-agency coalition to provide housing and food for the homeless. He created a company to provide musicians and other entertainers to corporate clients and to schools. He also became certified as a professional clown. He was for a while the Event Manager at the San Jose Convention Center. Discovering that the surrounding school districts had lacked music programs for 20 years, he set up programs that reached 1,500 students weekly.

    He had been born lacking peripheral vision. This meant being unable to view the sheet music and the conductor at the same time. He compensated by memorizing the music. While he wore glasses from the 8th grade, it was not until age 30 that the problem was correctly identified.

    Kern was often taken for the singer John Denver. After Denver’s death in a airplane crash in October 1997, Kern began singing in Denver’s style, and audiences were amazed at the physical as well as musical likeness, and in a 24-month period he ‘accidentally’ met a dozen people who had links with Denver.

    In 2009, at the age of 52, Kern started transition, and became Camilla Rose Waters.

    In 2012, in Flagstaff, Arizona, while out shopping, Camilla collapsed and woke up in hospital. Her lack of sight was now almost complete. She decided to move to Portland, Oregon for access to the Casey Eye Clinic, the city’s mass transit system and its strong music scene.

    She was welcomed by the Portland Folk Music Society and invited to be one of the representatives of the blind community. She is the first trans person in the history of the Western Music Association. She was chosen by the Portland Folk Music Society as their featured artist for November and December 2013, however the Oregonian Newspaper refused to do a story on her, or to review her music.

    Her current album is Songs from the Prairie.

    *Not the musician and pastor, also called Steve Kern; nor the Steve Kern, son of Artie Shaw and grandson of songwriter Jerome Kern.
    • Paul Von Ward. The Soul Genome: Science and Reincarnation. Fenestra Books, 2008: 9, 85, 127, 175-6, 190, 200-2.
    • Ray Ashmun. “An Interview with Camilla Rose”. Portland Folk Music Society, August 11, 2013. Online.
    SoundCloud     TransitionRadio


    The book by Paul Von Ward proposes that Steve Kern and John Denver are a split soul.

    Make of that what you will.

    The book was published in 2008, just before Camilla Rose transitioned. If it had been published a few years later, what would Von Ward have proposed: that John Denver, had he survived, also would have eventually transitioned?

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    Dick Feller was born and raised in Missouri. At 12 he had his first guitar, and at 15 played with a local band.

    In 1964 he tried his luck in the Los Angeles music scene.

    In 1966 he moved to Nashville: he toured with The Statesiders, did session work and wrote songs. Johnny Cash had a hit with Feller’s "Any Old Wind That Blows" in 1972; Jerry Reed recorded "The Lady is a Woman" and "One Sweet Reason". "Lord, Mr. Ford"– the last was a number-one hit in 1973. Feller’s first album came out some months later.

    He spent time at the Chelsea Hotel in New York in the mid-1970s.

    Feller and Jerry Reed did the music for the film Smokey and the Bandit, 1977. John Denver had a hit with Feller’s "Some Days Are Diamonds (Some Days Are Stone)".

    Feller has 400 published songs, received 10 BMI Music Awards for most performed songs of various years including two “Million-air” awards for songs that have played over a million times in broadcast play in North America alone, and has lectured at several universities.

    In the 2010s, Feller relocated to Las Vegas, transitioned at the age of 70 and became Deena Kaye Rose, and published her autobiography.

    *not Deena Rose the preacher

    Albums (under the name Dick Feller)

    Dick Feller Wrote, 1973
    No Word on me, 1974
    Some Days Are Diamonds, 1975
    Audiograph Alive, 1982
    Centaur of Attention, 2001.    EN.Wikipedia   IMDB    Alchetron

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    Lynne Irene Benton had been a cop in the small town of Gladstone, south of Portland, Oregon, and nearby towns since 1987. She had become a detective in 1993, the same year that she married a Brazilian man to help him acquire US citizenship (they divorced a few years later). 

    By 2008 Benton was a sergeant, the Public Information Officer for the Gladstone force, and taught at the local community college. She had been in a registered domestic relationship with a woman, and was working towards transition, although still presenting as female in both jobs. Benton had changed his name to Lynn Edward Benton, and been able to change his name on his driving license. 

    In June 2008 Benton was the local cop summoned when Neil Beagley was found dead. While eventually Neil’s parents, who belonged to the Followers of Christ Church, would be convicted of criminally negligent homicide in denying medical care to their 16-year-old son, initially it was the duty of Benton to announce that the son himself had declined medical attention (Oregon law allows those 14 and older to make such decisions). 

    During the Beagley trial in March 2010, Sergeant Benton was not called as a witness, despite being the first cop at the death scene. The lawyers did not want to confuse the jurors with Benton’s personal situation. Police Public Information Officers are often promoted to police chief, but Benton had been passed over when the former chief retired. 

    Benton had broken up with his domestic partner of nine years, and had taken up with Debbie Higbee, who owned a beauty parlor in Gladstone. They were married in July 2010. 

    Debbie considered that Lynn was becoming angrier and meaner, and attributed it to his taking testosterone. By the following May, Debbie was about to report him for domestic violence, which would have damaged his career. 

    Benton offered $2000 to a friend, Susan Campbell, and her son Jason Jaynes, to kill his wife. They shot, beat and then strangled her. Campbell said too much revealing what she knew of the murder, and was arrested. Jaynes was arrested on charges of sex with underage girls and imprisoned for 15 years, where he admitted to another inmate that he had helped his mother do the killing. 

    Benton was first placed on administrative leave, but then fired in December when pornography was found on his laptop, and because of the 1993 sham marriage – it was also said that he had not filed charges against Jayne for sex with underage girls. He became a Greyhound Bus driver. 

    In 2016 Irene Berg, the mother of Debbie Higbee, filed a $900,000 wrongful death lawsuit against Lynn Benton. 

    At the trial in 2017, Susan Campbell, whose grand jury testimony had secured the indictment, declined to testify, despite her plea deal for a reduced sentence. Despite this Lynn Edward Benton was found guilty of arranging the murder of his wife in 2011. He was sentenced to life without parole. 

    Benton is currently registered with the Oregon Department of Corrections as female and is in Oregon’s only women’s prison at Coffee Creek. (The facility also processes all new inmates, male and female. There are usually about 400 men at the facility. There are also six trans inmates there.)



    How far transitioned was Benton at the time of the 2010 marriage or the murder?   Stauth's book and the newspaper articles are not in agreement.  Certainly their is no mention of a doctor or clinic facilitating  transition, although he obviously has been taking male hormones.

    Campbell and Jaynes apparently never did get the $2,000.

    Cameron Stauth explains faith-healing homicide

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  • 07/24/18--13:53: A miscellany of unknowns

  • The Garden of Allah, a gay-owned cabaret was open in Seattle 1946-56. It featured mainly female impersonation, though some male impersonators also performed.

    Bill Plant took the name Peewee Nattajon in homage to an older performer called Nattajon (born 1895, died late 1960s). The elder Nattajon had been a character actor. Bill Plant says that he was in 13 Hollywood movies, including Beauty and the Beast and The Picture of Dorian Gray. However there is no Nattajon listed in IMDB. He is probably listed under another name – but which?

    Finocchio’s, the famous San Francisco nightclub that featured female impersonators, was owned by Joe and Marjorie Finocchio. Marjorie died in 1956, and Joe remarried to Eve. Rachel Harlow in Philadelphia was also born with the Finocchio name. No relationship has been established between them.

    Concetta Finocchio Jorgensen (1941 – 2012) daughter of Joe and Eve Finocchio had a short failed marriage that left her to raise four children alone. She worked doing publicity for her parents’ nightclub, but later was afflicted by MS, and became a disability activist. The husband who left was called Jorgensen. Surely not a relative of Christine? Probably not, but it is intriguing to find two of the most famous names in TG history born by the same person.


    Who is Gregory G Bolich?

    The Amazon Author Page lists only the following:

    Karl Barth and Evangelicalism, 1980
    Authority and the Church, 1983
    Christian Scholar: An Introduction to Theological Research, 1985
    God in the docket: The problem of good and evil, 1992
    Psyche’s child: The Story of Psychology, 2000
    12 Magic Wands: The art of Meeting Life’s Challenges, 2002

    WorldCat tells us that Bolich did a Ed.D, at Gonzaga University in Spokane in 1983: On dating James : new perspectives on an ancient problem, and a PhD at the Union Institute in Cincinnati in 1993: Serving human experience : the boundary metaphor.

    He also has several book published through Lulu, but not listed in Amazon.

    Scripture Study and Scholarship, 2015
    Brick by Brick on the Road through OZ: Recovery from Sexual Abuse Trauma, 2007
    Transgender and Religion, 2009
    Transgender Realities, 2009
    Transgender and Mental Health, 2013
    Crossdressing in Context (5 volumes) 2007-2010
    Asaph’s Dream (a US Civil War novel), 2011
    Conversing on gender: a primer for entering dialogue, 2007

    There is no web site for GG Bolich, and no reviews of his books. The transgender books are much more expensive than the theological ones. His books are not in the library. If I were to purchase his transgender works it would cost me hundreds of dollars. I cannot find any reason why I should do so. Does he have anything original to say, or are his books a regurgitation of the usual stuff? I do not know. How would I find out?


    Toni Ebel, post-op Hirschfeld patient in Berlin, fled Germany in 1934 after the Nazi takeover. She
    fled to Czechoslovakia, claiming to be a Jewess. She settled in Prague using the name Antonia Ebelová. In 1937 she moved to Brno. Karl Giese, Hirschfeld’s lover, had also fled to Brno.

    In October 1938, Nazi Germany occupied the Sudetenland; in March 1939 Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia.

    Giese killed himself before the Germans got him. Somehow Toni Ebel survived the war, and in 1949 became a citizen of the newly created German Democratic Republic (DDR). She was able to claim compensation from the DDR as a victim of Nazism. She was a minor painter and was recognized at the Akademie der Künste in East Berlin. She died in 1961 at the age of 80.

    We do not know how she survived the Nazi occupation.


    In the photographs included in Harry Benjamin’s The Transsexual Phenomenon, 1966, the 6th and 7th pages (not in the PDF version) are the before and after of an actor, both in a stereotyped pose more typical of silent films than of the 1960s. This actor has never been named. How an actor can transition in stealth and keep working is intriguing.

    The US trans actors of the 1960s such as  Candy Darling were non-op (however, of course, several of the stars of Le Carrousel in Paris were in films in at that time). The first US trans actor known to have surgically transitioned was Ajita Wilson who did so in the mid-1970s. The unnamed actor in the photograph is the true pioneer in her field, and we know nothing of her.


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    Jack Starr grew up on a farm in the US Midwest. His parents encouraged his desire to be an actor, and he studied voice, acting and classical ballet. His elder sister was dressing him in female clothing from age five.

    By the age of 14 he was doing drag in mob-controlled speakeasies in Chicago: both solo and in the line of chorines. He played the drag circuit in the 1930s, and did a tour of South America, and of Europe. Jackie met a Prince who wanted to take her home.

    “I was tempted but I’m glad I didn’t because he was killed in a coup and I’d have been killed too.”
    In Washington DC Jackie went out with senators. Later she moved to Greenwich Village, and tried acting and singing. She also did ballet, both as male and as female. She was one of only a few men in the US who could dance en pointe. She was a fill-in for the noted stripper Gypsy Rose Lee, and she also danced as a Rockette at the Radio City Music Hall (and was also married briefly to another

    In the late 1930s, Starr was one of the first artists to join the Jewel Box Review. Starr was one of only a few Jewel Box Revue artists to be dating a woman. He married a second woman, and they had a child.

    Starr was in the merchant marine during WWII.

    Jackie on the cover 
    When the Garden of Allah in Seattle opened in late 1946, Starr was quickly signed up as the headliner. By this time Starr was in her mid-30s, and was regarded as past her peak, although she gave class to the show. She stayed for the full ten years of the club’s existence. She could make a striptease last twenty minutes, finishing in a g-string. Walter Winchel, the syndicated columnist called Jackie "the most beautiful man in America".

    Bill Scott and his wife, known as Sister Faye, were street preachers, although most donations to their mission went to Faye’s heroin habit. Bill was devastated when she left town without him (she later died in a car accident, while high). Bill was both bisexual and homophobic, and also worked as a trucker.

    He was the recoil from a sex-only affair with a gay man, when he found himself in the Garden of Allah and Jackie was on stage. They married. They had a formal wedding and reception, in the home of a friend who played the part of a minister. Performer Skippy LaRue was the maid of honor and a lesbian the best man. They partied till 9am, and afterwards the couple had a big fight.

    However the marriage persisted. Jackie, as the woman, ran their daily affairs and the apartment, however sexually she was the top.
    Jackie & Bill's wedding

    Later Scott also married a woman who was supposed to inherit, with the idea of spending the money on Jackie. The inheritance never happened, and the second wife died. Scott moved back in with Jackie, and they ran a restaurant together.

    Towards the end Scott had to have both legs amputated, and Jackie took care of him till he died in the late 1960s.

    Jackie lived the last ten years of her life in a mobile home near the Seattle-Tacoma airport. She was as meticulous as ever in her appearance, and when she and her friends went to the Golden Crown drag bar in Seattle, the younger generation of drag performers would crowd around.

    • Don Paulson & and Roger Simpson. An Evening at the Garden of Allah: A Gay Cabaret in Seattle. Columbia University Press, 1996: 151-163.
    • Mara Dauphin. “ ‘A Bit of Woman in Every Man’: Creating Queer Community in Female Impersonation”. Valley Humanities Review, Spring 2012. PDF.

    Jackie Starr was a pre-eminent female impersonator 1930s-1950s, and yet there is - until now - no web page for her.  Queer Musical Heritage has a page but it only reproduces a few show bills; Lawrence Senelick's The Changing Room says not a word about her; likewise F Michael Moore's Drag! Male and Female Impersonators on Stage, Screen and Television.  

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    This program was part of a series called Open Door that launched in April 1973.   Championed by the BBC’s director of programmes at the time, David Attenborough, the series provided a platform for marginalised groups to talk about issues affecting them, without any editorial intervention. 

    Four trans women were described as the Transex Liberation Group, and were led by Della Aleksander.  The others were Rachel Bowen, Jan Ford and Laura Pralet.   Della was also the founder of GRAIL (Gender Research Association International Liaison), and co-produced this program.

    They are joined by two men: Member of Parliament for Pontypool, Leo Abse, who had introduced the private member’s bill to decriminalize homosexuality that had become law in 1967, and Dr Schlicht, a psychiatrist. 

    The opening clip is from the comedy program, Are You Being Served?  The same 'joke' was repeated in the movie spin-off from the series.

    Note that the pre-ops are referred to as 'transsexuals' and the post-ops as 'sex changes'.   I wonder how much of out jargon today will still be used in 2063 in the same way?   Della several times describes herself and others as 'intersexual', a term which we use much more carefully these days. 

    If the video does not play full-screen, click:

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    Stokes was born and raised in Doncaster, the child of a bricklayer. He ran away, some say at age 8, and did an apprenticeship with a bricksetter in Whitby.

    He married his first wife in either the Old Parish Church of Sheffield or Sheffield Cathedral in January 1817. Through the 1820s and 1830s they lived in Manchester where he built up a bricklaying firm that specialized in chimney and flue construction. His wife was the company accountant, and at its peak the company employed eight men and an apprentice.

    Harry had been sworn in as a Special Constable in 1829 in the 13th division, and acted in that capacity in the first days of the Chartist Riots, 1838.

    In April, also 1838, after 22 years of marriage, Harry’s wife approached a lawyer as she wanted a separation. Harry was withholding housekeeping money, getting drunk and ill-treating her.

    This was almost 20 years before the Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857. Divorce was governed by ecclesiastical courts and the canon law of the Church of England. In practice only the very wealthy, who could afford a private bill in Parliament, were able to get a divorce. However there was a chance of annulment.

    Mrs Stokes also stated, that she accidentally made the discovery of the sex of her husband “as much as two or three years back” but that she had kept the secret till the present time. Harry was then examined by a police surgeon who did certify that he was a woman. This led to stories in the press, gossip and ridicule, and ballads that were composed and sung in the streets.

    While no legal proceedings were taken, Harry had several conversations with the deputy constable and was persuaded to give the family home and contents to his wife, but refused to set aside any sum as a provision for her. Harry ceased to be a special constable in that he not present himself to be re-sworn at the annual procession at Manchester’s New Bailey.

    A year later Harry met Francis Collins who, initially out of pity, took him on as a lodger in nearby Salford for a couple of years. She was 10 years his senior, a barmaid with an adult son and daughter. They returned to Manchester and established a beer-house under her name. They were assumed to be a couple and Collins took the name of Stokes. Eleven years later they opened a second beer-house under the name of her son.

    However Harry in later years fell into decayed circumstances. In October 1859, a body was found in the River Irwell. The corpse was identified as that of Harry Stokes, then aged 60. The stories of 1838 being remembered, two women were deputed to examine the body. They reported back that it was of a “woman”. Again there were various newspaper stories about the “man woman”. Francis Collins Stokes maintained that despite sharing a bed with Stokes for 20 years she did not know that he was a woman.

    • "A Female-Husband". The Manchester Guardian. 11 April 1838:2. Online.
    • "The Woman-Husband". The Manchester Guardian. 14 April 1838: 2. Online.
    • “A Female Husband in Manchester”. The Weekly Dispatch, 15 April 1838: 175. Reprinted in Oram & Turnbull.
    • "A Woman Passing as a Man for Forty Years". The Manchester Examiner. 22 October 1859. Online.   
    • “ ‘Harry’ Stokes, The Man Woman”. Salford Evening News, October 1859. Online.
    • The Lancet: A Journal of British and Foreign Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics, Physiology, Chemistry, Pharmacology, Public Health and News, Volume 2, 1859:649-650. Online.
    • Alison Oram & Annmarie Turnbull. The Lesbian History Sourcebook: Love and Sex Between Women in Britain from 1780–1970. Routledge, 2001: 21-3, 26-8.
    • Esther Roper & Eva Gore-Booth. “Harry Stokes – Manchester’s ‘female husband’ “. Warp and Weft,
    • Esther Roper & Eva Gore-Booth. “Harry Stokes – timeline “. Warp and Weft.



    Some accounts (Lancet, Salford Evening News) ignore the first wife married in Sheffield and instead tell of a one-day marriage to a widow, Betsy, who kept a beerhouse, but objected that her new husband was a woman and charged him with assault, which led to his spending a month in the New Bailey prison. Warp and Weft think that maybe this was misremembering because of the ballads that were sung in 1838.

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    Part I: Life
    Part II: PhD thesis

    Mark Savage was born in Barrow, Cumbria, one of three children of a Baptist minister, and was raised in various parts of Lancashire. Despite a happy family home, Mark was thinking “I didn’t understand why I wasn’t a girl” by the start of school.

    After graduating from Birmingham University Savage became an archaeologist: He co-directed the first modern, complete excavation of a Roman milecastle – Milecastle 35 at Sewingshields on Hadrian’s Wall.

    In his mid-20s he decided to follow his father into the church and became a Church of England (CofE) curate in Heaton, on the outskirts of Newcastle. He completed a theology degree at Durham University, and a masters in adult learning. He became an adult education advisor for the diocese of Newcastle.

    He married in 1979, and they had two children. He was ordained in 1983. After ten years of teaching, Savage became the vicar in the parish of St Cuthbert’s in Bedlington, Northumberland.

    From 1990 Savage was also the wine writer for the Newcastle Journal. From 1991 he owned a house in France. Being fluent in the language, was able to visit hundreds of small vineyards across the country.

    However he still felt that he was living a lie. In his 40s he contacted the Beaumont Society, but quickly realised that he was not a transvestite. He saw doctors at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, and was approved for NHS surgery.

    Savage also began a PhD on gender dysphoria and Christian theology at the University of Durham, which draws upon the experiences of seven trans Christians who were interviewed over a period of eight months from 2002-3.

    In 2004, with the support of the Bishop of Newcastle, Savage stepped down as vicar so that she could transition to Helen. While Helen is not the only trans CofE vicar, the news of her transition became national news and the press camped on her doorstep for a while.

    She has stayed with her wife, and her now adult children have stood by her.

    “Neither am I the least bit girly, but as a female I just feel so at ease. It fits with the way my brain works, and I now feel grateful for every new day. It may not be easy for those who know and love me, but before I was so bound up in misery and so obsessed. Now I don't have those feelings anymore. I am just getting on with my life."
    She is still a CofE priest, and still a wine writer. Helen completed her PhD in 2006. (see discussion in Part II).

    While Savage had wanted to return to being a parish vicar, she encountered more problems as a
    woman than as a trans person in that some parishes would not take a woman priest, and she wished to remain in the north. Finally in 2015 she took the Moorland group of seven parishes around Hexham in Northumberland, and the Hexham Courant acquired its first ever wine columnist.

    She also has become a Master of Wine (one of only 300 or so worldwide). She is a member of both the Association of Wine Educators and the Circle of Wine Writers; she has twice been short-listed for the coveted Louis Roederer International Wine Writers’ Award.

    * Not Helen Savage the movie actor/director, nor the Library of Congress classifier, nor the jazz singer.
    * Not any of the other writers called Mark Savage
    • Mark Savage. Excavations on Hadrian's Wall at Sewingshields: Interim Report 1979. Peter Robson, 1979.
    • Mark Savage. Master of Wine Study Bursary: Reports on Visits to Italian Wine-Producing Regions, 1983. The Institute of Masters of Wine, 1985.
    • Mark Savage. The Red Wines of Burgundy. Octopus, 1988.
    • Mark Savage & Claude Dovaz. Bourgogne rouge. Gründ, 1988
    • “Vicar quits to change sex”. Evening Chronicle, 21 Mar 2004. Online.
    • “’Sex Change’ vicar quits parish”. BBC News 22 March 2004.
    • “Anguish of sex change vicar”. The Journal, 22 Mar 2004. Online.
    • Jane Hall interviews Helen Savage. “This is who I am, and I am proud of it”. The Journal, 13 Oct 2005. Online.
    • Helen Savage. Changing Sex?: Transsexuality and Christian Theology. University of Durham PhD Thesis, 2006. Online. Review.
    • Helen Savage. L’Histoire du vin de France. Fetjaine, 2011.
    • “Multi-talented vicar welcomed to Slaley”. Hexham Courant, 22 April 2015. Online.    twitter     WineEducators

    Several newspaper articles quote Helen to the effect that there are 5,000 transsexuals in Britain. This is surely a serious under-estimate.

    The Hexham Courant mentions that Savage has written a book on music. I was unable to find it.

    I have updated my Non-Fiction Books on other topics by trans authors to include Helen Savage.

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    Kotula was born in the US Midwest in a family of six girls and one boy, both parents school teachers. Kotula was refusing dresses by the age of six. Fortunately, unlike his elder siblings, Kotula did not have to attend parochial school with its gendered uniforms. On the other hand father often took the one son on hunting trips, but Kotula, despite heartfelt pleas to go, was left at home.

    Father was the local mayor for several years. He then retrained and took the family to live for six months in Hawai’i and two years in Bangkok.

    Being uncomfortable with the body changes that come with teenage, Kotula did drugs, was in a drug treatment center for eight months, and went to an alternate high school.

    Kotula started a relationship with a woman, and became much calmer. He visited the University of Minnesota gender identity program in his early twenties, but after they had stopped giving free treatment in 1979.

    “They could have helped me and a far greater percentage of transsexuals if they hadn’t charged exorbitant fees for their services. They had a long, drawn-out evaluation process, and I couldn’t afford their services. I moved, and finally, fifteen years later, connected with a psychiatrist in Portland, Oregon, who had a lot of experience evaluating transsexuals. I was a classic female-to-male (FTM) transsexual. He recognized the signs and wrote out a prescription for hormones during my second, one-hour session with him.” (In Cronn-Mills: 31)
    Kotula engaged in a variety of vocations: taxidermy, chimney sweeping, house renovations, commercial fishing – and especially photography. He also travelled around the US, and to India and South America.

    After 1975, every foreign vessel fishing in US waters had to have an American on board during fishing operations to document catches and collect biological data. From 1985 to 1990 Kotula worked aboard these factory ships as an observer, and also used his camera to record the experience.

    He applied to volunteer with the US Peace Corps, and went through the eight month evaluation process. He had checked several times that there was no dress code and that he would be working as an aquaculturalist in rice fields in Thailand for 27 months. He quit his job, gave up his apartment, and replaced the photographic equipment stolen by a burglar. However at the orientation session in San Francisco, there was suddenly a dress code requiring women to wear a skirt, and as a result Kotula was ejected from the program.

    He took the name Beryl, as a unisex name, and later the name Dean. In the mid-1990s, Kotula was working in the Portland shipyards and had found the right psychiatrist:
    “I was hired on as one of two female shipyard machinists just prior to receiving my long-awaited prescription for testosterone. I said nothing to my employer regarding my transsexual status or intention to transition. But a short time after introducing testosterone to my system, the physical changes were apparent. Around that time, I was featured prominently in a national pop-culture magazine. The son of one of the shipyard electricians saw the article and gave it to his dad, who passed it around among the two-thousand-plus employees working in the yard. So, the company saw the changes in me and read the explanation—the whys and wherefores—in the magazine, but no way did they accept it (there were a few exceptions). I began to be harassed in both subtle and obvious ways. [During work slowdowns], I was usually one of the first to be laid off and one of the last to be called back to work. During one layoff, I called the company and asked the secretary to send me a copy of my work record. Handwritten in the record were the words “was F, now M. When?” along with a notation stating that I should not be called back. Since I was a union employee, they had to begin to falsify a record of poor performance on my part, or some such thing, in order to justify a dismissal. When I saw the layoff notation linked to their knowledge of my transition (was F, now M) I felt that was proof positive of their decision to discriminate, so I filed a lawsuit against them. The Bureau of Labor and Industry in Portland, Oregon, investigated and found a positive finding of discrimination against me. I was the first transsexual in the state of Oregon to have a case with a positive finding of discrimination, and my case was instrumental towards gaining statewide protection for transsexuals in the state of Oregon.”
    (In Cronn-Mills: 31-2)
    He obtained a ruling from the Bureau of Labor and Industry (BoLI) that he was protected under the Oregon Disability Law. This was around the same time that a similar ruling was obtained, also from BoLI, for Lori Buckwalter who had been fired from Consolidated Freightways for starting transition.
    In 1997 the Oregon Legislature responded to the Buckwalter and Kotula decisions by amending the state law to say that "an employer may not be found to have engaged in an unlawful employment practice solely because the employer fails to provide reasonable accommodation to a person with a disability arising out of transsexualism”. This was better than the original proposals.

    Kotula was able to continue working in the shipyards despite harassment from both workers and management. Enough money was saved to pay for surgery.

    It was also in Portland that Dean met the Cheris Hiser (1940 - ) when they were both offering support to Kenny after his mastectomy. Cheris was a ‘photoevangelist’ who was known for her photographs of unknown subcultures. She had meant to do a project on trans men, but after meeting Dean realized that he should do it. He submitted a photographic essay to Transgender Tapestry and it was published in 1997.

    Later Hiser introduced Dean to painter/ photographer William E Parker (1932 - 2009) whose experience broadened the book. He became consulting editor and persuaded Dean to include essays by others. The book, The Phallus Palace, came out in 2002, with a preface by Hiser, and contributions from Milton Diamond, Toby Meltzer, Rachel Pollack, Ken Morris, Margaret O’Hartigan (on Alan Hart) and Dean’s sister, Sharon.  The center of the book being 19 photographs of trans men with an essay from each (some of whom were included in the 1997 photo essay).

    Post-transition Dean Kotula established himself as a photographer, and antiques dealer and lives in Massachusetts. In May-June 2014 there was an exhibition of Kotula’s photography in Searsport, Maine.
    • Dean Kotula. “Building a Male Body”. Transgender Tapestry, 79, Summer 1997. An early version of the photographic section of The Phallus Palace, 2002. Online.
    • Dean Kotula & William R Parker (eds). The Phallus Palace: Female to Male Transsexuals. Alyson Publications. 2002.
    • Dean Kotula. “Perceptions and Plaights”. In The Phallus Palace: 208-228.
    • Sharon E Kotula. “Metamorphosis of a Sibling: When History Changes”. In The Phallus Palace: 230-4.
    • Max Wolf Valerio. “Peering Inside the Phallus Palace”. Transgender Tapestry, 100, Winter 2002: 48-9. Online.
    • “Maritime Muse – Inspired By the Sea: Dean Kotula Photography Exhibit”. Bangor Daily News, May 20, 2014. Online.
    • “Dean Kotula” in Kirstin Cronn-Mills. Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex voices. Twenty-First Century Books, 2015: Chp 5: 28-33.

    Is Beryl a unisex name?  Apparently only in the US.  Discussion.

    Kotula's own account, in his own book and in Cronn-Mills is shy of dates.  I may have mis-assumed once or twice.

    For whatever reason, the Buckwalter and Kotula cases with BoLI are never discussed together.

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    Charles Schultz was born in West Seattle. By early teenage, Schultz had acquired a trunk full of female clothing, and often rode on the city streetcars where she passed easily.

    She got work at the local Florence Theatre. Her family and friends were aware, and proud of her professional photographs. She took the stage name of Francis Blair.

    In the 1930s Francis was in the chorus line of the Rivoli Burlesque. Her gender was known and her dressing space was separated from that of the cis women by a screen. She sometimes played the organ for the show.

    She was in the dishwashers’ union in case no theatre work was available; she was an officer in the performers’ union.

    Very unusually for the time, Francis wore her hair long, and did not have to wear a wig. When out in male persona, he concealed it under a hat.

    Francis was one of the first performers to join the Garden of Allah in 1946. Syndicated columnist Walter Winchell wrote about Francis as ‘the boy with the million-dollar legs”. She was known for her singing, but also danced, stripped, produced shows and designed costumes.

    During the Korean War, Francis did shows for the United Service Organizations (USO) which provided entertainment for the US Military. A rather prim hostess of the show had a fit when Francis stripped down to only a G-string.

    She was also a comedian and in contrast to her usual glamor act did a double act with Kenny Bee as ‘Two Old Bags from Tacoma’ where they wore old clothes with holes in their stockings. They took that act to Finocchio’s in San Francisco as ‘Two Old Bags from Oakland’.

    Years later, Francis and her husband of 20 years took a vacation in San Francisco, and they were attacked in Golden Gate Park. The husband and their dog were killed. Francis was left to drive home to Seattle alone, and was killed in a car crash in Oregon.

    *Not Charles Schultz the cartoonist.

    • Don Paulson. “Gay History: Francis Blair - Seattle's quintessential female impersonator”. Seattle Gay News, no date. Online.
    • Don Paulson & and Roger Simpson. An Evening at the Garden of Allah: A Gay Cabaret in Seattle. Columbia University Press, 1996: 135-141.
    • Gary L. Atkins. Gay Seattle: Stories of Exile and Belonging. University of Washington Press, 2003: 63.
    • Melissa Gohike. “San Antonio’s Drag Culture of the 1930s and 40s”. The Top Shelf, October 22, 2012. Online.

    Queer Music Heritage     David de Alba    


    As with Jackie Starr, there is no mention of Francis in either Lawrence Senelick's The Changing Room or F Michael Moore's Drag! Male and Female Impersonators on Stage, Screen and Television.

    It is odd that we do not have a date, not even a year, for Francis’ unfortunate demise.

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    Nell Pickerell was raised in Seattle. At age 16 Pickerell gave birth to a child by a father who was not recorded. Pickerell had already inclined to masculine interests and dress, and now adopted them full time. The child was raised by its grandparents.

    Two years later Pickerell, who had taken the name Harry Livingstone, was being featured in the press as far away as Philadelphia, “A Woman By Nature – A Man By Choice”. Livingstone had been arrested several times by the Seattle police. The reason given was creating a disturbance, but really for wearing the wrong clothes.

    Livingstone left town and got a job as a bartender in Washington’s Tunnel City, a railway camp at Stevens Pass in the Cascade Mountains, where a tunnel was approaching completion. Edward ‘Black Jack’ Morse, a felon from Alaska, was shot dead during an attempted robbery in Seattle in 1900. In his pocket was said to be found a photograph of himself and Livingstone taken in Tunnel City. Also in Tunnel City, it was reported, a waitress named Dolly Quappe, killed herself on Christmas Day, 1901, by drinking carbolic acid. This was said to be because she discovered that her Harry was not really a man, and anyway he loved another. In August 1902, Harry, drunk, punched a cop, which led him to the jailhouse. In November 1903, Pearl Waldren in Seattle attempted suicide by gunshot, declaring her love for Harry. In 1906, Harry was arrested again on a trumped-up charge – it was said that the police wanted to tie him in to train robberies by the infamous Bill Miner.

    Harry was said to have worked at all kinds of male jobs: bronco busting, bartending, barbering, long-shoring. He sang well in a deep voice, and played piano, violin, guitar and slide trombone.

    By 1911 Harry was mainly using the name Harry Allen. He was arrested and charged with selling alcohol to Native Americans.

    In June 1912 Harry and a prostitute friend, Isabelle Maxwell, travelled to Portland Oregon and took a room. As Maxwell was a prostitute, Allen was charged under the 1910 Mann Act for transportation across state lines for immoral purposes. The arrival of a cop who knew Allen and his gender history resulted in the dropping of the Mann Act charges, although – Oregon having no law against cross-dressing, he was convicted of vagrancy and sentenced to 90 days in the city jail.

    It just so happened that while Allen was in jail, Miriam Van Waters, a Portland native, an anthropology student at Clark University, Massachusetts and a future prison reformer, was in town doing research on female inmates at the city jail. Waters perceived Pickerell as an energetic and independent woman for whom modern society (unlike many aboriginal tribes) had no place.

    By 1917 Harry was working as a police informer after Washington State introduced alcohol prohibition.

    In 1919 Harry got into a quarrel with his 79-year-old father and was stabbed in the lungs from the back. The city hospital managed to save him. In 1920 he was busted for opium. Harry did die two years later at age 40 of syphilitic meningitis.

    • “A Woman By Nature – A Man By Choice”. Philadelphia Times, May 6, 1900: 18. Online.
    • “Dolly Quappe’s Suicide. Loved a Masquerading Girl”. Los Angeles Times, Dec 26, 1901. Online.
    • The Notorious Nell Pickerell in Town”. The Ellensburgh Capital, Feb 13, 1907. Online.
    • “How Catherine Madden Fell a Victim to Strong Drink; Why Nell Pickerell Will Not Wear Women’s Clothing”. The Spokesman Review, Oct 22, 1911: 24. Online.
    • “Nell Pickerell Returning to Jail”. The Spokesman Review, Nov 15, 1911: 5. Online.
    • “Nell Pickerell Denies Her Sex; Woman Who Dresses in Male Attire Starts Story She Is a ‘Real Man’; Rumor Causes Sensation”. The Spokesman Review, Nov 22, 1911: 6. Online.
    • “Fighter, Bootlegger and ‘Bad Man’ is Miss Pickerell For Love of Whom Three Women Have Killed Themselves”. Tacoma Times, April 12, 1912. Online.
    • Miriam Van Waters. The Adolescent Girl Among Primitive Peoples. PhD Thesis Clarke University, 1913: 107-110.
    • “Nell Pickerell May Die of Wounds”. Seattle Star, Sept 27, 1916. Online.
    • Nell Pickerell Dead:. Seattle Star, Dec 28, 1922. Online.
    • Peter Boag. Re-Dressing America's Frontier Past. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011: 23-31, 35, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 53-4, 57, 117, 202n2, 203-4n14.
    • Knute Berger. “Meet Nell Pickerell, transgender at-risk youth of yesteryear”. Crosscut, June 29, 2014. Online.
    • John Mackie. “This Week in History: 1906 The notorious Nell Pickerell returns to Seattle”. Vancouver Sun, February 24, 2017. Online.

    Boag is, probably rightly, skeptical of the tales of young women who killed themselves. Sometimes it is two, sometimes three. The waitress who drank the carbolic acid is sometimes named Dolly Quappe and sometimes Hazel Walters.

    Miriam Van Waters' dissertation, published 1913 was The Adolescent Girl Among Primitive Peoples. Far from seeing Allen as an invert, she heterosexualized Pickerell and even claimed that Pickerell had been married to the father of the child, and cross-dressed only to earn a better wage. She referred to Pickerell as Case I and as HA.

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    Articles on the Charing Cross Gender Identity Clinic (GIC)

    Part I: 1818-1982
    Part II: 1983-now
    Part III. Addendum
    Part IV. Stuart Lorimer

    Stuart Lorimer (born late 1960s) qualified as a doctor at Aberdeen Medical School, with a distinction in psychiatry. He has been involved with the Charing Cross GIC since 2002.

    Lorimer has provided a history of the Charing Cross GIC, with emphasis on his own involvement.

    • Dr Stuart Lorimer. “1966 and All That: The History of Charing Cross Gender Identity Clinic”. In Christine Burns’ Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows, Unbound, 2018: 51-67.
    I have also written a history of the Charing Cross GIC – see the links above. My emphasis is different, discusses more of the patients, and starting much earlier in time. I have adjusted my account slightly, especially in the most recent years with input from Lorimer’s account.

    There are two points in his account, however, that I would like to examine closely.

    1966 and all that.

    British persons over a certain age will immediately recognise the title as a riff on the 1930 classic satire by WC Sellar & RY Yeatman: 1066 and all that, which was published in 1930 and is a satire on how English history was taught at that time. How many readers under 40 would get the allusion is an open question as the content of history courses has changed so much. Peter Hitchins in his The Abolition of Britain says “A modern child, shown Sellar and Yeatman’s 1066 and All That, simply wouldn’t get the joke. You cannot laugh at this satire on forgetfulness and confusion unless you, too, share the experience of misunderstanding and mixing up the Wars of the Roses, Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck and the rest. You cannot even be enjoyably confused or forgetful about something which you never even knew in the first place.”

    However the important question is what did happen at the CX-GIC in 1966 such that Lorimer and others assume that 1966 was the founding of the clinic, despite it being in operation since the 1930s under a different name.

    In Part I of my account, I commented at the end: “The WLMHT GIC web site says: “The West London Gender Identity Clinic at Charing Cross Hospital (CX GIC) is the largest and oldest clinic of its type, dating back to 1966.” But what happened in 1966? Lennox Broster’s work with intersex persons dates back to the 1930s, and John Randell’s with transvestites and transsexuals dates to the 1950s. On the other hand the 1969 symposium reported ‘there is as yet no permanent gender identity unit’.” Lorimer’s account does not answer this.

    Lorimer twice mentions 1966. On p53 he writes: “Randell was nonetheless a trailblazer, the originator, in 1966, of one of the largest and oldest trans treatment centres in the world”. On p56 he writes of Harry Benjamin: “Distinguishing his patients from transvestites (a term not coined until Benjamin was twenty-five), he opened the doors of his first proper clinic in 1966, the same year as Randell’s GIC at Charing Cross”. Neither of these assertions answers my questions. What did Randell do in 1966 that is taken as founding the clinic that he had been running since 1950, and was such that three years later in 1969 it was said that reported “there is as yet no permanent gender identity unit”.

    (Note also that Lorimer is of the school that insists on ignoring the facts and claiming that Hirschfeld coined ‘transvestism’ despite it being in use from the 16th century and that the Paris Police had been issuing permissions de transvestissement since 1800.)


    Complaints were made against Russell Reid in 2004, and in 2007 there was an investigation by the General Medical Council that led to his resignation. Lorimer mentions this on p62, but does not list the doctors who made the complaint. Here is the list from David Batty’s article "GMC inquiry into gender change expert" in The Guardian, 20 January 2004: “Donald Montgomery, James Barratt, and Richard Green …. Together with Stuart Lorimer, a senior registrar at the clinic, they allege Dr Reid has repeatedly breached guidelines”.

    Now of course in 2004, Lorimer had been at Charing Cross only two years, and was the most junior of the four doctors mentioned. However it is naughty (to use a mild term) of him not to mention that he was one of the four doctors.

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    Part I: Introduction
    Part II: 1950-1980
    Part III: 1980-2004
    Reading list for English trans history.


    • Christine Burns. “Introduction”. In Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018: 1-18.
    Trans Britain was released in the UK in January 2018, and in Australia in February 2018. It is being  released in Canada and the US in September 2018. It is also available worldwide from Book Depository.

    There are not many histories of British trans people, so all additions are welcome, whatever their emphasis or selections of facts. In the new anthology, Trans Britain edited by herself, Christine Burns, includes an introduction to the book, and introductory chapters to each of the three sections, that together constitute a history of the topic.

    Despite the word ‘Britain’ in the title of the book, almost all that follows applies to England only. The anthology, Trans Britain, does include a chapter on Scottish trans activism by James Morton, but in Burns’ history chapters the only Scottish mention is of Ewan Forbes.

    I don’t know why Burns has to start by listing trans persons and events in the US. They are well known, and surely the reader is coming to this book for a discussion on British or at least English trans persons and events.

    The Introduction is more of a run around the world mentioning various trans cultures and events. A lot of the content is well-known: D’Eon, Hirschfeld, Mark Weston, Michael Dillon, Ewan Forbes.

    However, I too have been researching British trans history, and there are, unfortunately, significant discrepancies between our respective accounts.  I mention them here so that future historian will combine the best of both.

    ➤Burns mentions the English historian Peter Ackroyd’s 1979 book, Dressing Up (review), but only to say that he quotes somebody else on the North American two-spirit tradition – and then neither this book nor Ackroyd’s Queer City (review) are mentioned again. Surely she must have found much else of relevance in the two books.

    ➤She repeats the misinformation that d’Eon “infiltrated the court of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia as a woman” – surely Gary Kates’ 1995 book (the first book based on the previously ignored d’Eon archives in the University of Leeds Library) refuted that canard once and for all.

    ➤Two pages later she repeats the extremely popular but totally false notion that Magnus Hirschfeld coined the word ‘transvestism’ - how many times does this have to be refuted before writers pay attention?!

    ➤After talking of pioneering surgical techniques at Hirschfeld’s institute, Burns then totally ignores the successful surgeries on Hirschfeld’s patients ( Carla van Crist who was still alive in New York in 1952; Toni Ebel who lived until 1961 in East Germany; Dörchen Ritcher who was probably murdered by Nazis in 1933) and mentions only the unsuccessful surgery on Lili Elvenes (whom she still calls Lili Elbe) who of course was not a patient of Hirschfeld.

    ➤Burns correctly makes the point that Alan Hart in Oregon had surgery in 1917, before Hirschfeld’s patients, but says nothing about Karl Baer who had surgery in Berlin in 1906.

    ➤Burns mentions Liz Hodgkinson’s biography of Michael Dillon, Michael Née Laura, only by its reissue title From a Girl to a Man.

    ➤Most of the English persons mentioned in the period before 1950 are trans men. It is a shame that she did not mention trans woman Norman Jackson who was famously in the newspapers in 1931. It is obvious to modern readers that she was a transsexual, but unable to get any medical assistance.

    ➤Nor is there any mention of Mark Weston’s surgeon at Charing Cross Hospital, Lennox Broster. While Broster in the 1930s and 1940s declined to operate on any trans person who was not also intersex, he did pioneer genital surgery at Charing Cross, and his clinic was inherited by John Randell.

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    Part I: Introduction
    Part II: 1950-1980
    Part III: 1980-2004
    Reading list for English trans history.

    Is There Anyone Else Like Me

    • Christine Burns. “Is There Anyone Else Like Me”. In Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018: 23-38.
    On her first page of this chapter Burns mentions Roberta Cowell in the first and third paragraphs. Which makes it all the more odd that in the second paragraph she writes: “Biographies about trans people were many years away. Conundrum, the first British mainstream trans autobiography by historian and writer Jan Morris, would not appear until 1974.” Equivocation around the word ‘mainstream’ is possible, but surely Roberta Cowell's Story, British Book Centre, 1954, caused enough of a sensation to be mainstream. Burns mentions the running of the story in the Picture Post, but not the release of the book.

    Some other trans biographies and other writing by trans persons before 1974:

    • Michael Dillon. Self: A Study in Ethics and Endocrinology. William Heinemann Medical Books, 1946.
    • Robert Allen. But for the Grace: The True Story of a Dual Existence. W.H. Allen, 1954.
    • Georgina TurtleOver the Sex Border. Gollancz, 1963.

    The only trans man before 1950 discussed by Burns is the Scottish Lord, Ewan Forbes. Micheal Dillon was the first surgical trans man, but he followed a distinguished line of trans men who had transitioned without medical help: among the rich and titled classes there was Forbes, Walter Sholto Douglas, Wynsley Michael Swan, Joe Carstairs, Toupie Lowther; among the professional classes James Barry, Victor Barker, Robert Allen, Jonathan Ferguson, John Thorp ; and among the workers Harry Stokes, William Holtom, Ernest Wood– not to mention the notorious Bill Allen (executed 1949). There is a brief mention of Robert Allen on p123 where a page of the FTM Newsletter is reproduced, but his biography is still not mentioned.

    Burns spends three and a half pages on Virginia Prince and the Beaumont society (BS), but the Manchester TV/TS Group gets only one paragraph and the London TV/TS Group only one page. The leader of the London group, Yvonne Sinclair is dismissed as “a charismatic and opinionated cross-dresser” although she was once within 14 days of the operation. Trans women who turn back are also an important part of trans history. Why is Sinclair described as “opinionated’ while Prince is not?

    There is a photograph of the cover of Kris Kirk’s Men in Frocks, 1984 (admittedly not a good title at all) but no discussion of its contents other than to say “primarily concerned with the London drag scene”. Did Burns ever read it? See my review. Amongst other transsexual women it featured Poppy Cooper, Roz Kaveney, Letitia Winter/Fay Presto. I hope that Burns is not one of those who include heterosexual transvestites in the transgender umbrella, but exclude gay transvestites.

    We have got to 1984 and two of the major trans groups of the early 1970s have not been mentioned, and in fact are mentioned nowhere in the book at all. The first group was the Gay Liberation Front Transvestite, Transsexual and Drag Queen Group of whom the most prominent activists were Rachel Pollack and Roz Kaveney. In Trans Britain, given that GLFTTDQG and Men In Frocks are largely occluded, Roz does not appear until p307 and 2007 – despite having been a trans activist since the early 1970s.

    The other group is, of course, that run by Charlotte Bach. How can anyone write of trans activism in the 1970s and not include Charlotte? Her first group included Della Aleksander who later, post-surgery, did her own activism. Charlotte was adopted by some of the GLF leaders, and later was taken up by writer Colin Wilson who featured her in several of his books.

    Also not mentioned is the short-lived UK branch of Transsexual Action Organisation (TAO) which has almost vanished from history – apart from an account by Stephen Whittle included in Ekins & King’s The Transgender Phenomenon.

    Burns mentions the first National TV.TS Conference held at Leeds University in 1974. She claims that it was organized by the Beaumont Society. Really? That is not how it is told in Ekins & King’s account presented in 2007. The Leeds University TV,TS Group published the proceedings, and, as Ekins & King say: “The main organisers were Caroline R., a postgraduate student at Leeds University and June Willmott, the local Beaumont Society organiser”. (Actually June was also in the Leeds TV.TS Group and in TAO – so she was not a typical BS member). TAO and GLF were active as were Della Aleksander and a researcher from Charing Cross GIC. This conference also seems to be the first recorded use of the term ‘transgender’ in Britain – I would have thought that worth mentioning.

    Then having overstated the role of BS at Leeds, Burns makes no mention of the follow-up Conference at Leicester in 1975, which was indeed organised by the Beaumont Society, with a narrower range of participants.

    After commenting on how trans surgery seemed exotic as the most famous trans women, April Ashley and Jan Morris went to Dr Georges Burou in Casablanca, Burns then says “treatment closer to home was already a possibility from the mid-1960s, when John Randell established a clinic at the Charing Cross Hospital”. Except, of course, Randell was appointed at Charing Cross way back in 1950, and was working with trans persons shortly afterwards. (See more on the 1966 claim.)

    Burns rightly stresses the importance of Julia Grant’s transition and the CX-GIC’s treatment of her as recorded in the 1979 BBC documentary A Change of Sex.

    As I said above, different historians have a different emphasis and selections of facts. The story as told through the entries in my encyclopaedia, is significantly different from that told by Christine Burns. We still await a consolidated history of English trans history. Even more so we need a history of Scottish and Welsh trans history.

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    Part I: Introduction

    Part II: 1950-1980

    Part III: 1980-2004

    Annotated reading list for English trans history.

    1980-2004: A Question of Human Rights

    • Christine Burns.  “A Question of Human Rights”. “The Social Challenge”.  In Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows.  Unbound, 2018: 119-134, 249-261.

    Burns emphasises the division between transvestite and transsexual interests in the 1980s.   She spends 1.3 pages on the Self Help Association for Transsexuals (SHAFT) (half of that an image of the SHAFT newsletter).   Twice she stresses her dislike of the acronym (and it is true that Judy Cousins, the founder, was notably insensitive to other meanings of the word), but tells us nothing of what the group achieved.   It did bring together Judy, Rachael Webb the future Lambeth Councillor,  Brenda Lana Smith, Stephen Whittle, Alice Purnell and academic Richard Ekins.   Donations from SHAFT members established the Ulster Trans-Gender archive.  

    There were two major books on English trans persons published at this time.   

    • Duncan Fallowell & April Ashley. April Ashley's Odyssey.  J. Cape, 1982.

    • Liz Hodgkinson.  Bodyshock: The truth about changing sex.  Columbus Books, 1987. 

    The first is great fun and of historical importance.   However, cavorting with the rich and famous in France and Spain is not going to happen to most trans women.

    Trans Britain mentions Hodgkinson’s biography of Michael Dillon, Michael née Laura, 1989, but not her earlier book, Bodyshock, which features Judy Cousins, Rachael Webb (lorry driver and the first elected trans person in Britain), Michael Dillon, Mark Rees, Adèle Anderson and Stephanie Anne Booth.  Yes the book largely focused on SHAFT, in a similar way to which Men in Frocks had focused on the London TV/TS Group. 

    Later, Richard Ekins spent much time with Beaumont Society members and produced Male Femaling, 1997.  He and Dave King also edited an anthology Blending Genders, 1996.  The later was influential and much cited.   However Burns mentions neither book, and Ekins not at all.  

    Burns lists the steps preceding the formation of Press for Change (PFC) in 1992 which led to the passing of the Gender Recognition Act (GRA) in 2004.   She mentions several of the English people who appealed to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) especially Mark Rees, Caroline Cossey, Rachel Horsham.   I would have mentioned the international aspect as trans persons in Belgium, France, Switzerland, Portugal etc made similar appeals against the laws of their own countries, all of which contributed to the ECHR finally ruling in our favour. 

    Around the turn of the century there were apparently a few unpublicised cases, mainly of trans women in the military and intelligence who were recognised as female, even without divorcing their wives.  This was to stop these persons appealing to the ECHR, and it was insisted that they were one-off exemptions and did not set a precedent.   Petra Henderson, the best known of these cases, says that PFC did know of these cases and used them in negotiating for the GRA.  However, both here and in her two Pressing Mattersbooks, Burns says nothing of this.  This is therefore another area of trans history that is badly documented.

    She says nothing of the bureaucracy that came out of the Gender Recognition Act, the Gender Recognition Panel, located in Leicester.  I was very put off by their paternalistic attitude and almost gave up my application.    The man I dealt with seemed to have no feeling for what transsexuality is, and I had to explain to him that it is neither criminal nor shameful.    I would have liked a discussion about any many trans persons were employed by the panel, especially in the more senior roles.   Was the number greater than zero?   Why is this information not in the book?

    On p249, Burns summarises what had happened prior to Press for Change: “we have seen how trans people began to form a community among themselves about fifty years ago, with the founding of the Beaumont Society in 1966.  Many contributors have referenced the legal case (Corbett v Corbett) which stripped away key rights for transsexual people shortly after that in 1970, and we’ve seen how it took over twenty years before a legal and political campaign emerged in 1992”.   

    This can act as a statement of how Burns and I see English trans history quite differently.    

    Burns keeps over-emphasising what the Beaumont Society achieved and minimises what the other groups achieved.  Some of the groups, the Gay Liberation Front Transvestite, Transsexual and Drag Queen Group,  those run by Charlotte Bach and Della Aleksander, the TAO are not mentioned at all; SHAFTis dismissed simply with slurs about its name; and Yvonne Sinclair the leader of the London TV/TS Group is dismissed as ‘opinionated’ – almost all the leaders of trans groups in that period were opinionated - perhaps necessarily, but only Yvonne only is so put down.

    Likewise with earlier histories of English trans people.   Men in Frocks is dismissed as “primarily concerned with the London drag scene”, when it is so much more than that.   Hodgkinson’s Bodyshock is not even mentioned, nor are the Richard Ekins books.   Come to that, nor is this encyclopaedia - which would have corrected some of Burn's errors if she had consulted it. 

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    Bram Stoker. Famous imposters. Strurgis & Walton, 1910. 

    EN.Wikipedia. Yes, that Bram Stoker, the author of Dracula. Today we would object to trans persons being included in a book on imposters, but this was 1910. Includes essays on Hannah Snell, La Maupin, Mary Easy, D’Eon and the Bisley Boy/Elizabeth Tudor.

    Havelock Ellis. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. Vol 7 Eonism and Other Supplementary Studies. FA Davis 1928. 

    Ellis was aware of Hirschfeld’s Die Transvestiten, but disagreed with his terminology. In 1913 Ellis
    proposed the term 'sexo-aesthetic inversion' to describe the phenomenon. In 1920 he coined the term eonism, which he derived from the name of a historical figure, Chevalier d'Eon. Ellis explained: “On the psychic side, as I view it, the Eonist is embodying, in an extreme degree, the aesthetic attitude of imitation of, and identification with, the admired object. It is normal for a man to identify himself with the woman he loves. The Eonist carries that identification too far, stimulated by a sensitive and feminine element in himself which is associated with a rather defective virile sexuality on what may be a neurotic basis.” Weirdly ignored in Phyllis Grosskurth’s study of Ellis.

    Michael Dillon. Self: A Study in Ethics and Endocrinology. William Heinemann Medical Books, 1946. 

    The first book anywhere by a trans person that discusses transsexuality, although it does so as a sub-type of ‘homosexuality’.

    Georgina Turtle. Over the Sex Border. Gollancz, 1963. 

    Review. The first book anywhere to discuss trans women using the term ‘transexual’. Turtle was a dentist and a mosaic XO/XY transsexual, and thus was generally ignored e,g in Benjamin’s book three years later.

    Roger Baker. Drag: a History of Female Impersonation on the Stage. Triton Books, 1968. 

    The performivity end of the spectrum. Features tales of impersonators who later transitioned, but also many who did not.

    Gilbert Oakley. Sex change and dress deviation. Morntide, 1970. 

    Review. The author of the hoax trans biography, Man into Woman, 1964, and several books on self
    confidence and psychology. He was also a female impersonator. Offer a typology and concludes: “From his observations, the author is convinced that the transvestite is far happier than the trans-sexual. Life is by no means so complex, so painful, or so embarrassing for them. The future is not obscured by a mist of hopefulness and doubt. The best of two worlds lies within the transvestite's grasp, for he can change from male to 'female' at will. The author concludes, therefore , that the sex-change phenomenon is wholly and completely disastrous, and that medical bodies the world over are seriously at fault in encouraging it in any way when other means of therapy are surely at their disposal to help these unfortunate people." Reaches conclusion similar to Virginia Prince without having heard of her.

    Desmond Montmorency. The Drag Scene: The Secrets of Female Impersonators. Luxor Press, 1970. 

    Much less scholarly than Roger Baker’s book. The Oakley and the Montmorency book were both published in 1970. Both books are the same size and shape, both are dominantly yellow and both have a partial title but no author on the spine. One is published by Morntide and the other by Luxor. However both Morntide and Luxor give their address as 50 Alexandria Road, London SW19.

    Peter Ackroyd. Dressing Up: Transvestism and Drag, the History of an Obsession. Simon and Shuster. 1979. 

    Review. Ackroyd’s first non-fiction book. While openly gay, he describes himself as an outsider to this subject. “Some transvestites are exclusively fetishistic; they dress, in other words, to obtain some kind of sexual arousal. Psychoanalysts believe this to be the dominant mode of transvestism and, indeed, many transvestites remain fixed at this stage, assuaging their obsessions by frequent or intermittent cross-dressing. But there are other transvestites who move out of the fetishistic stage; they cease to be sexually excited by the act of cross-dressing itself, and go on to a more comprehensive form of feminine ‘passing’.” This book was in the bibliography of almost every book on trans in the 1980s.

    George Ives (ed Paul Sieveking). Man Bites Man: The Scrapbook of an Edwardian Eccentric. Penguin Books, 1981. 

    The 19th century pioneer gay activist left many press cuttings, including on transvestism,

    Kris Kirk with photographs by Ed Heath. Men In Frocks. Gay Men's Press 1984.

    Review. Despite its ill-chosen title, this book traces trans history from the 1940s when there was
    almost nowhere for trans persons to go, and shows how performance went from being the only option to one of several options. Kirk found many of his interviewees at the London TV/TS Group. My choice for the best English trans history book. "If there is any one lesson to be learned from studying this field it is that the individual is individual. People define themselves and the self-definition must always take priority over the received wisdom. I have met self-defined draq queens whom others would describe as TV either because they enjoy 'passing'; or because they 'dress' so often that it could be seen as a compulsion; or because they wear lingerie, either to turn men on or to make themselves feel sensuous. I have met drag performers who have grown to dislike drag, and men who insist on being called 'cross-dressers' because they dislike what the word 'drag' stands for, and men who wear part-drag in order to create confusion and doubt amongst others, but who would never wear full drag because that would defeat their object. I know self-defined TVs who are gay or bisexual or oscillating, some of them having learned to cross this sexuality barrier through their cross-dressing. I have met TVs who dress like drag queens and drag queens who dress like TVs, and TVs whose cross-dressing has encouraged them to question their 'male role', which in turn has made them examine their idea of 'femininity'. And perhaps most important of all, I have learned how marshy a terrain is the middle ground between our earlier clear-cut distinction between transvestites and transexuals."

    Liz Hodgkinson. Bodyshock: The truth about changing sex. Columbus Books, 1987. 

    Hodgkinson found her interviewees at SHAFT. Two years before her full-length biography of
    Michael Dillon, Michael née Laura, she wrote this overview which features Judy Cousins, Rachael Webb (lorry driver and the first elected trans person in Britain), Michael Dillon, Mark Rees, Adèle Anderson and Stephanie Anne Booth.

    Annie Woodhouse. Fantastic Women: Sex, Gender, and Transvestism. Rutgers University Press, 1989. 

    Concentrates on the wives of transvestites. She also found interviewees at the London TV?TS Group.

    Dave King. The Transvestite and the Transsexual: Public categories and private identities. Avebury, 1993. 

    A neglected but quite useful history of both trans persons and the doctors.

    Roger Baker. Drag: a History of Female Impersonation in the Performing Arts.
    Cassell, 1994. 

    Not an expansion of the 1968 book, as content from that has been removed. A rewrite with a much more positive attitude.

    Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Blending genders: social aspects of cross-dressing and sex-changing. Routledge. 1996. 

    Includes two chapters from King’s 1993 book. Also two contributions from Peter Farrer, and chapters by Mark Rees, Roberta Perkins, Phaedra Kelly, Carol Riddell, Rachael Terri Webb and Stephen Whittle. But also Neil Buhrich, Dwight Billings and Thomas Urban, and Janice Raymond.

    Peter Farrer. Cross Dressing between the Wars: Selections from London Life, 1923-1933. Karn Publications, 2000. 

    Farrer wrote many books analysing trans content in various publications. This is probably the best.

    Alison Oram & Annmarie Turnbull. The Lesbian History Sourcebook: Love and Sex Between Women in Britain from 1780–1970. Routledge, 2001. 

    Includes 40 pages of source documents on ‘cross-dressing women’. Oram regards them as lesbians, but many seem to be trans men such as Victor Barker, James Allen, Harry Stokes,

    Richard Ekins & Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon. Thousand Oaks. 2006. 

    The major work from Ekins and King. Some of their conclusions are odd (e,g, their support of Blanchard and Prince) but the book includes history not found anywhere else.

    Peter Farrer. Cross Dressing between the Wars: Selections from London Life, Part II 1934-1941. Karn Publications, 2006.

    Alison Oram. Her Husband was a Woman!: Women's gender-crossing in modern
    British popular culture
    . Routledge, 2007. 

    Impressive analysis from the newspaper archives 1900-1960. Again Oram regards the persons as lesbians rather than trans men. Includes William Holtam, Victor Barker, Ernest WoodHarold LloydMichael Johnson.

    Clare R. Tebbut. Popular and Medical Understanding of Sex Change in 1930s Britain. PhD Thesis, University of Manchester, 2014. 

    PDF. A neglected but very useful publication. More detail on Lennox Broster than anywhere else; cover the Charing Cross clinic, the press, glands and hormones and sport. One gripe is that she refers to Norma Jackson only by her male name.

    Peter Ackroyd. Queer City: Gay London from the Romans to the present day.
    Chatto & Windus, 2017.

    Review. A history of queer London. Transvestites are discussed from 1394 to The Well of Loneliness in 1928, but not a single one after that, and also no transsexuals at all.

    Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018. 

    Review. Burns’ historical chapters keep over-emphasising what the Beaumont Society achieved and minimises what the other groups achieved, but will spread the story.

    Gender Variance Who’s Who, 2007-now

    This encyclopaedia contains many entries applicable to English trans history, as well as that of the rest of the world. 

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