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Essays on trans, intersex, cis and other persons and topics from a trans perspective.......All human life is here.
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    Part I: Life
    Part II: PhD thesis

    Mark Savage was born in Barrow, Cumbria, one of three children of a Baptist minister, and was raised in various parts of Lancashire. Despite a happy family home, Mark was thinking “I didn’t understand why I wasn’t a girl” by the start of school.

    After graduating from Birmingham University Savage became an archaeologist: He co-directed the first modern, complete excavation of a Roman milecastle – Milecastle 35 at Sewingshields on Hadrian’s Wall.

    In his mid-20s he decided to follow his father into the church and became a Church of England (CofE) curate in Heaton, on the outskirts of Newcastle. He completed a theology degree at Durham University, and a masters in adult learning. He became an adult education advisor for the diocese of Newcastle.

    He married in 1979, and they had two children. He was ordained in 1983. After ten years of teaching, Savage became the vicar in the parish of St Cuthbert’s in Bedlington, Northumberland.

    From 1990 Savage was also the wine writer for the Newcastle Journal. From 1991 he owned a house in France. Being fluent in the language, was able to visit hundreds of small vineyards across the country.

    However he still felt that he was living a lie. In his 40s he contacted the Beaumont Society, but quickly realised that he was not a transvestite. He saw doctors at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, and was approved for NHS surgery.

    Savage also began a PhD on gender dysphoria and Christian theology at the University of Durham, which draws upon the experiences of seven trans Christians who were interviewed over a period of eight months from 2002-3.

    In 2004, with the support of the Bishop of Newcastle, Savage stepped down as vicar so that she could transition to Helen. While Helen is not the only trans CofE vicar, the news of her transition became national news and the press camped on her doorstep for a while.

    She has stayed with her wife, and her now adult children have stood by her.

    “Neither am I the least bit girly, but as a female I just feel so at ease. It fits with the way my brain works, and I now feel grateful for every new day. It may not be easy for those who know and love me, but before I was so bound up in misery and so obsessed. Now I don't have those feelings anymore. I am just getting on with my life."
    She is still a CofE priest, and still a wine writer. Helen completed her PhD in 2006. (see discussion in Part II).

    While Savage had wanted to return to being a parish vicar, she encountered more problems as a
    woman than as a trans person in that some parishes would not take a woman priest, and she wished to remain in the north. Finally in 2015 she took the Moorland group of seven parishes around Hexham in Northumberland, and the Hexham Courant acquired its first ever wine columnist.

    She also has become a Master of Wine (one of only 300 or so worldwide). She is a member of both the Association of Wine Educators and the Circle of Wine Writers; she has twice been short-listed for the coveted Louis Roederer International Wine Writers’ Award.

    * Not Helen Savage the movie actor/director, nor the Library of Congress classifier, nor the jazz singer.
    * Not any of the other writers called Mark Savage
    • Mark Savage. Excavations on Hadrian's Wall at Sewingshields: Interim Report 1979. Peter Robson, 1979.
    • Mark Savage. Master of Wine Study Bursary: Reports on Visits to Italian Wine-Producing Regions, 1983. The Institute of Masters of Wine, 1985.
    • Mark Savage. The Red Wines of Burgundy. Octopus, 1988.
    • Mark Savage & Claude Dovaz. Bourgogne rouge. Gründ, 1988
    • “Vicar quits to change sex”. Evening Chronicle, 21 Mar 2004. Online.
    • “’Sex Change’ vicar quits parish”. BBC News 22 March 2004.
    • “Anguish of sex change vicar”. The Journal, 22 Mar 2004. Online.
    • Jane Hall interviews Helen Savage. “This is who I am, and I am proud of it”. The Journal, 13 Oct 2005. Online.
    • Helen Savage. Changing Sex?: Transsexuality and Christian Theology. University of Durham PhD Thesis, 2006. Online. Review.
    • Helen Savage. L’Histoire du vin de France. Fetjaine, 2011.
    • “Multi-talented vicar welcomed to Slaley”. Hexham Courant, 22 April 2015. Online.    twitter     WineEducators

    Several newspaper articles quote Helen to the effect that there are 5,000 transsexuals in Britain. This is surely a serious under-estimate.

    The Hexham Courant mentions that Savage has written a book on music. I was unable to find it.

    I have updated my Non-Fiction Books on other topics by trans authors to include Helen Savage.

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    Kotula was born in the US Midwest in a family of six girls and one boy, both parents school teachers. Kotula was refusing dresses by the age of six. Fortunately, unlike his elder siblings, Kotula did not have to attend parochial school with its gendered uniforms. On the other hand father often took the one son on hunting trips, but Kotula, despite heartfelt pleas to go, was left at home.

    Father was the local mayor for several years. He then retrained and took the family to live for six months in Hawai’i and two years in Bangkok.

    Being uncomfortable with the body changes that come with teenage, Kotula did drugs, was in a drug treatment center for eight months, and went to an alternate high school.

    Kotula started a relationship with a woman, and became much calmer. He visited the University of Minnesota gender identity program in his early twenties, but after they had stopped giving free treatment in 1979.

    “They could have helped me and a far greater percentage of transsexuals if they hadn’t charged exorbitant fees for their services. They had a long, drawn-out evaluation process, and I couldn’t afford their services. I moved, and finally, fifteen years later, connected with a psychiatrist in Portland, Oregon, who had a lot of experience evaluating transsexuals. I was a classic female-to-male (FTM) transsexual. He recognized the signs and wrote out a prescription for hormones during my second, one-hour session with him.” (In Cronn-Mills: 31)
    Kotula engaged in a variety of vocations: taxidermy, chimney sweeping, house renovations, commercial fishing – and especially photography. He also travelled around the US, and to India and South America.

    After 1975, every foreign vessel fishing in US waters had to have an American on board during fishing operations to document catches and collect biological data. From 1985 to 1990 Kotula worked aboard these factory ships as an observer, and also used his camera to record the experience.

    He applied to volunteer with the US Peace Corps, and went through the eight month evaluation process. He had checked several times that there was no dress code and that he would be working as an aquaculturalist in rice fields in Thailand for 27 months. He quit his job, gave up his apartment, and replaced the photographic equipment stolen by a burglar. However at the orientation session in San Francisco, there was suddenly a dress code requiring women to wear a skirt, and as a result Kotula was ejected from the program.

    He took the name Beryl, as a unisex name, and later the name Dean. In the mid-1990s, Kotula was working in the Portland shipyards and had found the right psychiatrist:
    “I was hired on as one of two female shipyard machinists just prior to receiving my long-awaited prescription for testosterone. I said nothing to my employer regarding my transsexual status or intention to transition. But a short time after introducing testosterone to my system, the physical changes were apparent. Around that time, I was featured prominently in a national pop-culture magazine. The son of one of the shipyard electricians saw the article and gave it to his dad, who passed it around among the two-thousand-plus employees working in the yard. So, the company saw the changes in me and read the explanation—the whys and wherefores—in the magazine, but no way did they accept it (there were a few exceptions). I began to be harassed in both subtle and obvious ways. [During work slowdowns], I was usually one of the first to be laid off and one of the last to be called back to work. During one layoff, I called the company and asked the secretary to send me a copy of my work record. Handwritten in the record were the words “was F, now M. When?” along with a notation stating that I should not be called back. Since I was a union employee, they had to begin to falsify a record of poor performance on my part, or some such thing, in order to justify a dismissal. When I saw the layoff notation linked to their knowledge of my transition (was F, now M) I felt that was proof positive of their decision to discriminate, so I filed a lawsuit against them. The Bureau of Labor and Industry in Portland, Oregon, investigated and found a positive finding of discrimination against me. I was the first transsexual in the state of Oregon to have a case with a positive finding of discrimination, and my case was instrumental towards gaining statewide protection for transsexuals in the state of Oregon.”
    (In Cronn-Mills: 31-2)
    He obtained a ruling from the Bureau of Labor and Industry (BoLI) that he was protected under the Oregon Disability Law. This was around the same time that a similar ruling was obtained, also from BoLI, for Lori Buckwalter who had been fired from Consolidated Freightways for starting transition.
    In 1997 the Oregon Legislature responded to the Buckwalter and Kotula decisions by amending the state law to say that "an employer may not be found to have engaged in an unlawful employment practice solely because the employer fails to provide reasonable accommodation to a person with a disability arising out of transsexualism”. This was better than the original proposals.

    Kotula was able to continue working in the shipyards despite harassment from both workers and management. Enough money was saved to pay for surgery.

    It was also in Portland that Dean met the Cheris Hiser (1940 - ) when they were both offering support to Kenny after his mastectomy. Cheris was a ‘photoevangelist’ who was known for her photographs of unknown subcultures. She had meant to do a project on trans men, but after meeting Dean realized that he should do it. He submitted a photographic essay to Transgender Tapestry and it was published in 1997.

    Later Hiser introduced Dean to painter/ photographer William E Parker (1932 - 2009) whose experience broadened the book. He became consulting editor and persuaded Dean to include essays by others. The book, The Phallus Palace, came out in 2002, with a preface by Hiser, and contributions from Milton Diamond, Toby Meltzer, Rachel Pollack, Ken Morris, Margaret O’Hartigan (on Alan Hart) and Dean’s sister, Sharon.  The center of the book being 19 photographs of trans men with an essay from each (some of whom were included in the 1997 photo essay).

    Post-transition Dean Kotula established himself as a photographer, and antiques dealer and lives in Massachusetts. In May-June 2014 there was an exhibition of Kotula’s photography in Searsport, Maine.
    • Dean Kotula. “Building a Male Body”. Transgender Tapestry, 79, Summer 1997. An early version of the photographic section of The Phallus Palace, 2002. Online.
    • Dean Kotula & William R Parker (eds). The Phallus Palace: Female to Male Transsexuals. Alyson Publications. 2002.
    • Dean Kotula. “Perceptions and Plaights”. In The Phallus Palace: 208-228.
    • Sharon E Kotula. “Metamorphosis of a Sibling: When History Changes”. In The Phallus Palace: 230-4.
    • Max Wolf Valerio. “Peering Inside the Phallus Palace”. Transgender Tapestry, 100, Winter 2002: 48-9. Online.
    • “Maritime Muse – Inspired By the Sea: Dean Kotula Photography Exhibit”. Bangor Daily News, May 20, 2014. Online.
    • “Dean Kotula” in Kirstin Cronn-Mills. Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex voices. Twenty-First Century Books, 2015: Chp 5: 28-33.

    Is Beryl a unisex name?  Apparently only in the US.  Discussion.

    Kotula's own account, in his own book and in Cronn-Mills is shy of dates.  I may have mis-assumed once or twice.

    For whatever reason, the Buckwalter and Kotula cases with BoLI are never discussed together.

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    Charles Schultz was born in West Seattle. By early teenage, Schultz had acquired a trunk full of female clothing, and often rode on the city streetcars where she passed easily.

    She got work at the local Florence Theatre. Her family and friends were aware, and proud of her professional photographs. She took the stage name of Francis Blair.

    In the 1930s Francis was in the chorus line of the Rivoli Burlesque. Her gender was known and her dressing space was separated from that of the cis women by a screen. She sometimes played the organ for the show.

    She was in the dishwashers’ union in case no theatre work was available; she was an officer in the performers’ union.

    Very unusually for the time, Francis wore her hair long, and did not have to wear a wig. When out in male persona, he concealed it under a hat.

    Francis was one of the first performers to join the Garden of Allah in 1946. Syndicated columnist Walter Winchell wrote about Francis as ‘the boy with the million-dollar legs”. She was known for her singing, but also danced, stripped, produced shows and designed costumes.

    During the Korean War, Francis did shows for the United Service Organizations (USO) which provided entertainment for the US Military. A rather prim hostess of the show had a fit when Francis stripped down to only a G-string.

    She was also a comedian and in contrast to her usual glamor act did a double act with Kenny Bee as ‘Two Old Bags from Tacoma’ where they wore old clothes with holes in their stockings. They took that act to Finocchio’s in San Francisco as ‘Two Old Bags from Oakland’.

    Years later, Francis and her husband of 20 years took a vacation in San Francisco, and they were attacked in Golden Gate Park. The husband and their dog were killed. Francis was left to drive home to Seattle alone, and was killed in a car crash in Oregon.

    *Not Charles Schultz the cartoonist.

    • Don Paulson. “Gay History: Francis Blair - Seattle's quintessential female impersonator”. Seattle Gay News, no date. Online.
    • Don Paulson & and Roger Simpson. An Evening at the Garden of Allah: A Gay Cabaret in Seattle. Columbia University Press, 1996: 135-141.
    • Gary L. Atkins. Gay Seattle: Stories of Exile and Belonging. University of Washington Press, 2003: 63.
    • Melissa Gohike. “San Antonio’s Drag Culture of the 1930s and 40s”. The Top Shelf, October 22, 2012. Online.

    Queer Music Heritage     David de Alba    


    As with Jackie Starr, there is no mention of Francis in either Lawrence Senelick's The Changing Room or F Michael Moore's Drag! Male and Female Impersonators on Stage, Screen and Television.

    It is odd that we do not have a date, not even a year, for Francis’ unfortunate demise.

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    Nell Pickerell was raised in Seattle. At age 16 Pickerell gave birth to a child by a father who was not recorded. Pickerell had already inclined to masculine interests and dress, and now adopted them full time. The child was raised by its grandparents.

    Two years later Pickerell, who had taken the name Harry Livingstone, was being featured in the press as far away as Philadelphia, “A Woman By Nature – A Man By Choice”. Livingstone had been arrested several times by the Seattle police. The reason given was creating a disturbance, but really for wearing the wrong clothes.

    Livingstone left town and got a job as a bartender in Washington’s Tunnel City, a railway camp at Stevens Pass in the Cascade Mountains, where a tunnel was approaching completion. Edward ‘Black Jack’ Morse, a felon from Alaska, was shot dead during an attempted robbery in Seattle in 1900. In his pocket was said to be found a photograph of himself and Livingstone taken in Tunnel City. Also in Tunnel City, it was reported, a waitress named Dolly Quappe, killed herself on Christmas Day, 1901, by drinking carbolic acid. This was said to be because she discovered that her Harry was not really a man, and anyway he loved another. In August 1902, Harry, drunk, punched a cop, which led him to the jailhouse. In November 1903, Pearl Waldren in Seattle attempted suicide by gunshot, declaring her love for Harry. In 1906, Harry was arrested again on a trumped-up charge – it was said that the police wanted to tie him in to train robberies by the infamous Bill Miner.

    Harry was said to have worked at all kinds of male jobs: bronco busting, bartending, barbering, long-shoring. He sang well in a deep voice, and played piano, violin, guitar and slide trombone.

    By 1911 Harry was mainly using the name Harry Allen. He was arrested and charged with selling alcohol to Native Americans.

    In June 1912 Harry and a prostitute friend, Isabelle Maxwell, travelled to Portland Oregon and took a room. As Maxwell was a prostitute, Allen was charged under the 1910 Mann Act for transportation across state lines for immoral purposes. The arrival of a cop who knew Allen and his gender history resulted in the dropping of the Mann Act charges, although – Oregon having no law against cross-dressing, he was convicted of vagrancy and sentenced to 90 days in the city jail.

    It just so happened that while Allen was in jail, Miriam Van Waters, a Portland native, an anthropology student at Clark University, Massachusetts and a future prison reformer, was in town doing research on female inmates at the city jail. Waters perceived Pickerell as an energetic and independent woman for whom modern society (unlike many aboriginal tribes) had no place.

    By 1917 Harry was working as a police informer after Washington State introduced alcohol prohibition.

    In 1919 Harry got into a quarrel with his 79-year-old father and was stabbed in the lungs from the back. The city hospital managed to save him. In 1920 he was busted for opium. Harry did die two years later at age 40 of syphilitic meningitis.

    • “A Woman By Nature – A Man By Choice”. Philadelphia Times, May 6, 1900: 18. Online.
    • “Dolly Quappe’s Suicide. Loved a Masquerading Girl”. Los Angeles Times, Dec 26, 1901. Online.
    • The Notorious Nell Pickerell in Town”. The Ellensburgh Capital, Feb 13, 1907. Online.
    • “How Catherine Madden Fell a Victim to Strong Drink; Why Nell Pickerell Will Not Wear Women’s Clothing”. The Spokesman Review, Oct 22, 1911: 24. Online.
    • “Nell Pickerell Returning to Jail”. The Spokesman Review, Nov 15, 1911: 5. Online.
    • “Nell Pickerell Denies Her Sex; Woman Who Dresses in Male Attire Starts Story She Is a ‘Real Man’; Rumor Causes Sensation”. The Spokesman Review, Nov 22, 1911: 6. Online.
    • “Fighter, Bootlegger and ‘Bad Man’ is Miss Pickerell For Love of Whom Three Women Have Killed Themselves”. Tacoma Times, April 12, 1912. Online.
    • Miriam Van Waters. The Adolescent Girl Among Primitive Peoples. PhD Thesis Clarke University, 1913: 107-110.
    • “Nell Pickerell May Die of Wounds”. Seattle Star, Sept 27, 1916. Online.
    • Nell Pickerell Dead:. Seattle Star, Dec 28, 1922. Online.
    • Peter Boag. Re-Dressing America's Frontier Past. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011: 23-31, 35, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 53-4, 57, 117, 202n2, 203-4n14.
    • Knute Berger. “Meet Nell Pickerell, transgender at-risk youth of yesteryear”. Crosscut, June 29, 2014. Online.
    • John Mackie. “This Week in History: 1906 The notorious Nell Pickerell returns to Seattle”. Vancouver Sun, February 24, 2017. Online.

    Boag is, probably rightly, skeptical of the tales of young women who killed themselves. Sometimes it is two, sometimes three. The waitress who drank the carbolic acid is sometimes named Dolly Quappe and sometimes Hazel Walters.

    Miriam Van Waters' dissertation, published 1913 was The Adolescent Girl Among Primitive Peoples. Far from seeing Allen as an invert, she heterosexualized Pickerell and even claimed that Pickerell had been married to the father of the child, and cross-dressed only to earn a better wage. She referred to Pickerell as Case I and as HA.

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    Articles on the Charing Cross Gender Identity Clinic (GIC)

    Part I: 1818-1982
    Part II: 1983-now
    Part III. Addendum
    Part IV. Stuart Lorimer

    Stuart Lorimer (born late 1960s) qualified as a doctor at Aberdeen Medical School, with a distinction in psychiatry. He has been involved with the Charing Cross GIC since 2002.

    Lorimer has provided a history of the Charing Cross GIC, with emphasis on his own involvement.

    • Dr Stuart Lorimer. “1966 and All That: The History of Charing Cross Gender Identity Clinic”. In Christine Burns’ Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows, Unbound, 2018: 51-67.
    I have also written a history of the Charing Cross GIC – see the links above. My emphasis is different, discusses more of the patients, and starting much earlier in time. I have adjusted my account slightly, especially in the most recent years with input from Lorimer’s account.

    There are two points in his account, however, that I would like to examine closely.

    1966 and all that.

    British persons over a certain age will immediately recognise the title as a riff on the 1930 classic satire by WC Sellar & RY Yeatman: 1066 and all that, which was published in 1930 and is a satire on how English history was taught at that time. How many readers under 40 would get the allusion is an open question as the content of history courses has changed so much. Peter Hitchins in his The Abolition of Britain says “A modern child, shown Sellar and Yeatman’s 1066 and All That, simply wouldn’t get the joke. You cannot laugh at this satire on forgetfulness and confusion unless you, too, share the experience of misunderstanding and mixing up the Wars of the Roses, Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck and the rest. You cannot even be enjoyably confused or forgetful about something which you never even knew in the first place.”

    However the important question is what did happen at the CX-GIC in 1966 such that Lorimer and others assume that 1966 was the founding of the clinic, despite it being in operation since the 1930s under a different name.

    In Part I of my account, I commented at the end: “The WLMHT GIC web site says: “The West London Gender Identity Clinic at Charing Cross Hospital (CX GIC) is the largest and oldest clinic of its type, dating back to 1966.” But what happened in 1966? Lennox Broster’s work with intersex persons dates back to the 1930s, and John Randell’s with transvestites and transsexuals dates to the 1950s. On the other hand the 1969 symposium reported ‘there is as yet no permanent gender identity unit’.” Lorimer’s account does not answer this.

    Lorimer twice mentions 1966. On p53 he writes: “Randell was nonetheless a trailblazer, the originator, in 1966, of one of the largest and oldest trans treatment centres in the world”. On p56 he writes of Harry Benjamin: “Distinguishing his patients from transvestites (a term not coined until Benjamin was twenty-five), he opened the doors of his first proper clinic in 1966, the same year as Randell’s GIC at Charing Cross”. Neither of these assertions answers my questions. What did Randell do in 1966 that is taken as founding the clinic that he had been running since 1950, and was such that three years later in 1969 it was said that reported “there is as yet no permanent gender identity unit”.

    (Note also that Lorimer is of the school that insists on ignoring the facts and claiming that Hirschfeld coined ‘transvestism’ despite it being in use from the 16th century and that the Paris Police had been issuing permissions de transvestissement since 1800.)


    Complaints were made against Russell Reid in 2004, and in 2007 there was an investigation by the General Medical Council that led to his resignation. Lorimer mentions this on p62, but does not list the doctors who made the complaint. Here is the list from David Batty’s article "GMC inquiry into gender change expert" in The Guardian, 20 January 2004: “Donald Montgomery, James Barratt, and Richard Green …. Together with Stuart Lorimer, a senior registrar at the clinic, they allege Dr Reid has repeatedly breached guidelines”.

    Now of course in 2004, Lorimer had been at Charing Cross only two years, and was the most junior of the four doctors mentioned. However it is naughty (to use a mild term) of him not to mention that he was one of the four doctors.

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    Part I: Introduction
    Part II: 1950-1980
    Part III: 1980-2004
    Reading list for English trans history.


    • Christine Burns. “Introduction”. In Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018: 1-18.
    Trans Britain was released in the UK in January 2018, and in Australia in February 2018. It is being  released in Canada and the US in September 2018. It is also available worldwide from Book Depository.

    There are not many histories of British trans people, so all additions are welcome, whatever their emphasis or selections of facts. In the new anthology, Trans Britain edited by herself, Christine Burns, includes an introduction to the book, and introductory chapters to each of the three sections, that together constitute a history of the topic.

    Despite the word ‘Britain’ in the title of the book, almost all that follows applies to England only. The anthology, Trans Britain, does include a chapter on Scottish trans activism by James Morton, but in Burns’ history chapters the only Scottish mention is of Ewan Forbes.

    I don’t know why Burns has to start by listing trans persons and events in the US. They are well known, and surely the reader is coming to this book for a discussion on British or at least English trans persons and events.

    The Introduction is more of a run around the world mentioning various trans cultures and events. A lot of the content is well-known: D’Eon, Hirschfeld, Mark Weston, Michael Dillon, Ewan Forbes.

    However, I too have been researching British trans history, and there are, unfortunately, significant discrepancies between our respective accounts.  I mention them here so that future historian will combine the best of both.

    ➤Burns mentions the English historian Peter Ackroyd’s 1979 book, Dressing Up (review), but only to say that he quotes somebody else on the North American two-spirit tradition – and then neither this book nor Ackroyd’s Queer City (review) are mentioned again. Surely she must have found much else of relevance in the two books.

    ➤She repeats the misinformation that d’Eon “infiltrated the court of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia as a woman” – surely Gary Kates’ 1995 book (the first book based on the previously ignored d’Eon archives in the University of Leeds Library) refuted that canard once and for all.

    ➤Two pages later she repeats the extremely popular but totally false notion that Magnus Hirschfeld coined the word ‘transvestism’ - how many times does this have to be refuted before writers pay attention?!

    ➤After talking of pioneering surgical techniques at Hirschfeld’s institute, Burns then totally ignores the successful surgeries on Hirschfeld’s patients ( Carla van Crist who was still alive in New York in 1952; Toni Ebel who lived until 1961 in East Germany; Dörchen Ritcher who was probably murdered by Nazis in 1933) and mentions only the unsuccessful surgery on Lili Elvenes (whom she still calls Lili Elbe) who of course was not a patient of Hirschfeld.

    ➤Burns correctly makes the point that Alan Hart in Oregon had surgery in 1917, before Hirschfeld’s patients, but says nothing about Karl Baer who had surgery in Berlin in 1906.

    ➤Burns mentions Liz Hodgkinson’s biography of Michael Dillon, Michael Née Laura, only by its reissue title From a Girl to a Man.

    ➤Most of the English persons mentioned in the period before 1950 are trans men. It is a shame that she did not mention trans woman Norman Jackson who was famously in the newspapers in 1931. It is obvious to modern readers that she was a transsexual, but unable to get any medical assistance.

    ➤Nor is there any mention of Mark Weston’s surgeon at Charing Cross Hospital, Lennox Broster. While Broster in the 1930s and 1940s declined to operate on any trans person who was not also intersex, he did pioneer genital surgery at Charing Cross, and his clinic was inherited by John Randell.

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    Part I: Introduction
    Part II: 1950-1980
    Part III: 1980-2004
    Reading list for English trans history.

    Is There Anyone Else Like Me

    • Christine Burns. “Is There Anyone Else Like Me”. In Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018: 23-38.
    On her first page of this chapter Burns mentions Roberta Cowell in the first and third paragraphs. Which makes it all the more odd that in the second paragraph she writes: “Biographies about trans people were many years away. Conundrum, the first British mainstream trans autobiography by historian and writer Jan Morris, would not appear until 1974.” Equivocation around the word ‘mainstream’ is possible, but surely Roberta Cowell's Story, British Book Centre, 1954, caused enough of a sensation to be mainstream. Burns mentions the running of the story in the Picture Post, but not the release of the book.

    Some other trans biographies and other writing by trans persons before 1974:

    • Michael Dillon. Self: A Study in Ethics and Endocrinology. William Heinemann Medical Books, 1946.
    • Robert Allen. But for the Grace: The True Story of a Dual Existence. W.H. Allen, 1954.
    • Georgina TurtleOver the Sex Border. Gollancz, 1963.

    The only trans man before 1950 discussed by Burns is the Scottish Lord, Ewan Forbes. Micheal Dillon was the first surgical trans man, but he followed a distinguished line of trans men who had transitioned without medical help: among the rich and titled classes there was Forbes, Walter Sholto Douglas, Wynsley Michael Swan, Joe Carstairs, Toupie Lowther; among the professional classes James Barry, Victor Barker, Robert Allen, Jonathan Ferguson, John Thorp ; and among the workers Harry Stokes, William Holtom, Ernest Wood– not to mention the notorious Bill Allen (executed 1949). There is a brief mention of Robert Allen on p123 where a page of the FTM Newsletter is reproduced, but his biography is still not mentioned.

    Burns spends three and a half pages on Virginia Prince and the Beaumont society (BS), but the Manchester TV/TS Group gets only one paragraph and the London TV/TS Group only one page. The leader of the London group, Yvonne Sinclair is dismissed as “a charismatic and opinionated cross-dresser” although she was once within 14 days of the operation. Trans women who turn back are also an important part of trans history. Why is Sinclair described as “opinionated’ while Prince is not?

    There is a photograph of the cover of Kris Kirk’s Men in Frocks, 1984 (admittedly not a good title at all) but no discussion of its contents other than to say “primarily concerned with the London drag scene”. Did Burns ever read it? See my review. Amongst other transsexual women it featured Poppy Cooper, Roz Kaveney, Letitia Winter/Fay Presto. I hope that Burns is not one of those who include heterosexual transvestites in the transgender umbrella, but exclude gay transvestites.

    We have got to 1984 and two of the major trans groups of the early 1970s have not been mentioned, and in fact are mentioned nowhere in the book at all. The first group was the Gay Liberation Front Transvestite, Transsexual and Drag Queen Group of whom the most prominent activists were Rachel Pollack and Roz Kaveney. In Trans Britain, given that GLFTTDQG and Men In Frocks are largely occluded, Roz does not appear until p307 and 2007 – despite having been a trans activist since the early 1970s.

    The other group is, of course, that run by Charlotte Bach. How can anyone write of trans activism in the 1970s and not include Charlotte? Her first group included Della Aleksander who later, post-surgery, did her own activism. Charlotte was adopted by some of the GLF leaders, and later was taken up by writer Colin Wilson who featured her in several of his books.

    Also not mentioned is the short-lived UK branch of Transsexual Action Organisation (TAO) which has almost vanished from history – apart from an account by Stephen Whittle included in Ekins & King’s The Transgender Phenomenon.

    Burns mentions the first National TV.TS Conference held at Leeds University in 1974. She claims that it was organized by the Beaumont Society. Really? That is not how it is told in Ekins & King’s account presented in 2007. The Leeds University TV,TS Group published the proceedings, and, as Ekins & King say: “The main organisers were Caroline R., a postgraduate student at Leeds University and June Willmott, the local Beaumont Society organiser”. (Actually June was also in the Leeds TV.TS Group and in TAO – so she was not a typical BS member). TAO and GLF were active as were Della Aleksander and a researcher from Charing Cross GIC. This conference also seems to be the first recorded use of the term ‘transgender’ in Britain – I would have thought that worth mentioning.

    Then having overstated the role of BS at Leeds, Burns makes no mention of the follow-up Conference at Leicester in 1975, which was indeed organised by the Beaumont Society, with a narrower range of participants.

    After commenting on how trans surgery seemed exotic as the most famous trans women, April Ashley and Jan Morris went to Dr Georges Burou in Casablanca, Burns then says “treatment closer to home was already a possibility from the mid-1960s, when John Randell established a clinic at the Charing Cross Hospital”. Except, of course, Randell was appointed at Charing Cross way back in 1950, and was working with trans persons shortly afterwards. (See more on the 1966 claim.)

    Burns rightly stresses the importance of Julia Grant’s transition and the CX-GIC’s treatment of her as recorded in the 1979 BBC documentary A Change of Sex.

    As I said above, different historians have a different emphasis and selections of facts. The story as told through the entries in my encyclopaedia, is significantly different from that told by Christine Burns. We still await a consolidated history of English trans history. Even more so we need a history of Scottish and Welsh trans history.

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    Part I: Introduction

    Part II: 1950-1980

    Part III: 1980-2004

    Annotated reading list for English trans history.

    1980-2004: A Question of Human Rights

    • Christine Burns.  “A Question of Human Rights”. “The Social Challenge”.  In Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows.  Unbound, 2018: 119-134, 249-261.

    Burns emphasises the division between transvestite and transsexual interests in the 1980s.   She spends 1.3 pages on the Self Help Association for Transsexuals (SHAFT) (half of that an image of the SHAFT newsletter).   Twice she stresses her dislike of the acronym (and it is true that Judy Cousins, the founder, was notably insensitive to other meanings of the word), but tells us nothing of what the group achieved.   It did bring together Judy, Rachael Webb the future Lambeth Councillor,  Brenda Lana Smith, Stephen Whittle, Alice Purnell and academic Richard Ekins.   Donations from SHAFT members established the Ulster Trans-Gender archive.  

    There were two major books on English trans persons published at this time.   

    • Duncan Fallowell & April Ashley. April Ashley's Odyssey.  J. Cape, 1982.

    • Liz Hodgkinson.  Bodyshock: The truth about changing sex.  Columbus Books, 1987. 

    The first is great fun and of historical importance.   However, cavorting with the rich and famous in France and Spain is not going to happen to most trans women.

    Trans Britain mentions Hodgkinson’s biography of Michael Dillon, Michael née Laura, 1989, but not her earlier book, Bodyshock, which features Judy Cousins, Rachael Webb (lorry driver and the first elected trans person in Britain), Michael Dillon, Mark Rees, Adèle Anderson and Stephanie Anne Booth.  Yes the book largely focused on SHAFT, in a similar way to which Men in Frocks had focused on the London TV/TS Group. 

    Later, Richard Ekins spent much time with Beaumont Society members and produced Male Femaling, 1997.  He and Dave King also edited an anthology Blending Genders, 1996.  The later was influential and much cited.   However Burns mentions neither book, and Ekins not at all.  

    Burns lists the steps preceding the formation of Press for Change (PFC) in 1992 which led to the passing of the Gender Recognition Act (GRA) in 2004.   She mentions several of the English people who appealed to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) especially Mark Rees, Caroline Cossey, Rachel Horsham.   I would have mentioned the international aspect as trans persons in Belgium, France, Switzerland, Portugal etc made similar appeals against the laws of their own countries, all of which contributed to the ECHR finally ruling in our favour. 

    Around the turn of the century there were apparently a few unpublicised cases, mainly of trans women in the military and intelligence who were recognised as female, even without divorcing their wives.  This was to stop these persons appealing to the ECHR, and it was insisted that they were one-off exemptions and did not set a precedent.   Petra Henderson, the best known of these cases, says that PFC did know of these cases and used them in negotiating for the GRA.  However, both here and in her two Pressing Mattersbooks, Burns says nothing of this.  This is therefore another area of trans history that is badly documented.

    She says nothing of the bureaucracy that came out of the Gender Recognition Act, the Gender Recognition Panel, located in Leicester.  I was very put off by their paternalistic attitude and almost gave up my application.    The man I dealt with seemed to have no feeling for what transsexuality is, and I had to explain to him that it is neither criminal nor shameful.    I would have liked a discussion about any many trans persons were employed by the panel, especially in the more senior roles.   Was the number greater than zero?   Why is this information not in the book?

    On p249, Burns summarises what had happened prior to Press for Change: “we have seen how trans people began to form a community among themselves about fifty years ago, with the founding of the Beaumont Society in 1966.  Many contributors have referenced the legal case (Corbett v Corbett) which stripped away key rights for transsexual people shortly after that in 1970, and we’ve seen how it took over twenty years before a legal and political campaign emerged in 1992”.   

    This can act as a statement of how Burns and I see English trans history quite differently.    

    Burns keeps over-emphasising what the Beaumont Society achieved and minimises what the other groups achieved.  Some of the groups, the Gay Liberation Front Transvestite, Transsexual and Drag Queen Group,  those run by Charlotte Bach and Della Aleksander, the TAO are not mentioned at all; SHAFTis dismissed simply with slurs about its name; and Yvonne Sinclair the leader of the London TV/TS Group is dismissed as ‘opinionated’ – almost all the leaders of trans groups in that period were opinionated - perhaps necessarily, but only Yvonne only is so put down.

    Likewise with earlier histories of English trans people.   Men in Frocks is dismissed as “primarily concerned with the London drag scene”, when it is so much more than that.   Hodgkinson’s Bodyshock is not even mentioned, nor are the Richard Ekins books.   Come to that, nor is this encyclopaedia - which would have corrected some of Burn's errors if she had consulted it. 

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    Bram Stoker. Famous imposters. Strurgis & Walton, 1910. 

    EN.Wikipedia. Yes, that Bram Stoker, the author of Dracula. Today we would object to trans persons being included in a book on imposters, but this was 1910. Includes essays on Hannah Snell, La Maupin, Mary Easy, D’Eon and the Bisley Boy/Elizabeth Tudor.

    Havelock Ellis. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. Vol 7 Eonism and Other Supplementary Studies. FA Davis 1928. 

    Ellis was aware of Hirschfeld’s Die Transvestiten, but disagreed with his terminology. In 1913 Ellis
    proposed the term 'sexo-aesthetic inversion' to describe the phenomenon. In 1920 he coined the term eonism, which he derived from the name of a historical figure, Chevalier d'Eon. Ellis explained: “On the psychic side, as I view it, the Eonist is embodying, in an extreme degree, the aesthetic attitude of imitation of, and identification with, the admired object. It is normal for a man to identify himself with the woman he loves. The Eonist carries that identification too far, stimulated by a sensitive and feminine element in himself which is associated with a rather defective virile sexuality on what may be a neurotic basis.” Weirdly ignored in Phyllis Grosskurth’s study of Ellis.

    Michael Dillon. Self: A Study in Ethics and Endocrinology. William Heinemann Medical Books, 1946. 

    The first book anywhere by a trans person that discusses transsexuality, although it does so as a sub-type of ‘homosexuality’.

    Georgina Turtle. Over the Sex Border. Gollancz, 1963. 

    Review. The first book anywhere to discuss trans women using the term ‘transexual’. Turtle was a dentist and a mosaic XO/XY transsexual, and thus was generally ignored e,g in Benjamin’s book three years later.

    Roger Baker. Drag: a History of Female Impersonation on the Stage. Triton Books, 1968. 

    The performivity end of the spectrum. Features tales of impersonators who later transitioned, but also many who did not.

    Gilbert Oakley. Sex change and dress deviation. Morntide, 1970. 

    Review. The author of the hoax trans biography, Man into Woman, 1964, and several books on self
    confidence and psychology. He was also a female impersonator. Offer a typology and concludes: “From his observations, the author is convinced that the transvestite is far happier than the trans-sexual. Life is by no means so complex, so painful, or so embarrassing for them. The future is not obscured by a mist of hopefulness and doubt. The best of two worlds lies within the transvestite's grasp, for he can change from male to 'female' at will. The author concludes, therefore , that the sex-change phenomenon is wholly and completely disastrous, and that medical bodies the world over are seriously at fault in encouraging it in any way when other means of therapy are surely at their disposal to help these unfortunate people." Reaches conclusion similar to Virginia Prince without having heard of her.

    Desmond Montmorency. The Drag Scene: The Secrets of Female Impersonators. Luxor Press, 1970. 

    Much less scholarly than Roger Baker’s book. The Oakley and the Montmorency book were both published in 1970. Both books are the same size and shape, both are dominantly yellow and both have a partial title but no author on the spine. One is published by Morntide and the other by Luxor. However both Morntide and Luxor give their address as 50 Alexandria Road, London SW19.

    Peter Ackroyd. Dressing Up: Transvestism and Drag, the History of an Obsession. Simon and Shuster. 1979. 

    Review. Ackroyd’s first non-fiction book. While openly gay, he describes himself as an outsider to this subject. “Some transvestites are exclusively fetishistic; they dress, in other words, to obtain some kind of sexual arousal. Psychoanalysts believe this to be the dominant mode of transvestism and, indeed, many transvestites remain fixed at this stage, assuaging their obsessions by frequent or intermittent cross-dressing. But there are other transvestites who move out of the fetishistic stage; they cease to be sexually excited by the act of cross-dressing itself, and go on to a more comprehensive form of feminine ‘passing’.” This book was in the bibliography of almost every book on trans in the 1980s.

    George Ives (ed Paul Sieveking). Man Bites Man: The Scrapbook of an Edwardian Eccentric. Penguin Books, 1981. 

    The 19th century pioneer gay activist left many press cuttings, including on transvestism,

    Kris Kirk with photographs by Ed Heath. Men In Frocks. Gay Men's Press 1984.

    Review. Despite its ill-chosen title, this book traces trans history from the 1940s when there was
    almost nowhere for trans persons to go, and shows how performance went from being the only option to one of several options. Kirk found many of his interviewees at the London TV/TS Group. My choice for the best English trans history book. "If there is any one lesson to be learned from studying this field it is that the individual is individual. People define themselves and the self-definition must always take priority over the received wisdom. I have met self-defined draq queens whom others would describe as TV either because they enjoy 'passing'; or because they 'dress' so often that it could be seen as a compulsion; or because they wear lingerie, either to turn men on or to make themselves feel sensuous. I have met drag performers who have grown to dislike drag, and men who insist on being called 'cross-dressers' because they dislike what the word 'drag' stands for, and men who wear part-drag in order to create confusion and doubt amongst others, but who would never wear full drag because that would defeat their object. I know self-defined TVs who are gay or bisexual or oscillating, some of them having learned to cross this sexuality barrier through their cross-dressing. I have met TVs who dress like drag queens and drag queens who dress like TVs, and TVs whose cross-dressing has encouraged them to question their 'male role', which in turn has made them examine their idea of 'femininity'. And perhaps most important of all, I have learned how marshy a terrain is the middle ground between our earlier clear-cut distinction between transvestites and transexuals."

    Liz Hodgkinson. Bodyshock: The truth about changing sex. Columbus Books, 1987. 

    Hodgkinson found her interviewees at SHAFT. Two years before her full-length biography of
    Michael Dillon, Michael née Laura, she wrote this overview which features Judy Cousins, Rachael Webb (lorry driver and the first elected trans person in Britain), Michael Dillon, Mark Rees, Adèle Anderson and Stephanie Anne Booth.

    Annie Woodhouse. Fantastic Women: Sex, Gender, and Transvestism. Rutgers University Press, 1989. 

    Concentrates on the wives of transvestites. She also found interviewees at the London TV?TS Group.

    Dave King. The Transvestite and the Transsexual: Public categories and private identities. Avebury, 1993. 

    A neglected but quite useful history of both trans persons and the doctors.

    Roger Baker. Drag: a History of Female Impersonation in the Performing Arts.
    Cassell, 1994. 

    Not an expansion of the 1968 book, as content from that has been removed. A rewrite with a much more positive attitude.

    Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Blending genders: social aspects of cross-dressing and sex-changing. Routledge. 1996. 

    Includes two chapters from King’s 1993 book. Also two contributions from Peter Farrer, and chapters by Mark Rees, Roberta Perkins, Phaedra Kelly, Carol Riddell, Rachael Terri Webb and Stephen Whittle. But also Neil Buhrich, Dwight Billings and Thomas Urban, and Janice Raymond.

    Peter Farrer. Cross Dressing between the Wars: Selections from London Life, 1923-1933. Karn Publications, 2000. 

    Farrer wrote many books analysing trans content in various publications. This is probably the best.

    Alison Oram & Annmarie Turnbull. The Lesbian History Sourcebook: Love and Sex Between Women in Britain from 1780–1970. Routledge, 2001. 

    Includes 40 pages of source documents on ‘cross-dressing women’. Oram regards them as lesbians, but many seem to be trans men such as Victor Barker, James Allen, Harry Stokes,

    Richard Ekins & Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon. Thousand Oaks. 2006. 

    The major work from Ekins and King. Some of their conclusions are odd (e,g, their support of Blanchard and Prince) but the book includes history not found anywhere else.

    Peter Farrer. Cross Dressing between the Wars: Selections from London Life, Part II 1934-1941. Karn Publications, 2006.

    Alison Oram. Her Husband was a Woman!: Women's gender-crossing in modern
    British popular culture
    . Routledge, 2007. 

    Impressive analysis from the newspaper archives 1900-1960. Again Oram regards the persons as lesbians rather than trans men. Includes William Holtam, Victor Barker, Ernest WoodHarold LloydMichael Johnson.

    Clare R. Tebbut. Popular and Medical Understanding of Sex Change in 1930s Britain. PhD Thesis, University of Manchester, 2014. 

    PDF. A neglected but very useful publication. More detail on Lennox Broster than anywhere else; cover the Charing Cross clinic, the press, glands and hormones and sport. One gripe is that she refers to Norma Jackson only by her male name.

    Peter Ackroyd. Queer City: Gay London from the Romans to the present day.
    Chatto & Windus, 2017.

    Review. A history of queer London. Transvestites are discussed from 1394 to The Well of Loneliness in 1928, but not a single one after that, and also no transsexuals at all.

    Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018. 

    Review. Burns’ historical chapters keep over-emphasising what the Beaumont Society achieved and minimises what the other groups achieved, but will spread the story.

    Gender Variance Who’s Who, 2007-now

    This encyclopaedia contains many entries applicable to English trans history, as well as that of the rest of the world. 

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    Seymour was raised with the name of Mary in Taunton, Somerset, with a father who was a land agent for the local nobleman.

    At age 14 Seymour was married to an army surgeon, by the name of Honeywell. However the marriage was unbearable and Seymour ran away to London.

    There Seymour met a woman who had previously been a farm servant on the estate in Taunton. She was married to a cabman, and with his example Seymour took a haircut and with a ‘judicious use of clothing’ was able to pass as a man, and make a living as a cab driver.

    After three years, in 1869, Seymour relocated to Liverpool, where he continued in his trade. By this time he had a wife, Agnes, who would bring his dinner to the cabstand. They were recorded as married in the 1871 census.

    In February 1875 Seymour was committed for trial for stealing 30lbs of meat from a butcher on Leece Street Liverpool. In the detective office suspicions were aroused in that Seymour was almost 30, and there was sign neither of a beard nor of the use of a razor. Seymour was persuaded to confess his original gender and was indicted under his male name, his girl name and his married name of Mrs Honeywell. He was found guilty and imprisoned for two months in Walton Jail.

    • “A Woman as a Cabdriver for Ten Years’. The Liverpool Mercury, 13 February 1875. Reprinted in Alison Oram & Annmarie Turnbull. The Lesbian History Sourcebook: Love and Sex Between Women in Britain from 1780–1970. Routledge, 2001: 31-2.
    • Billie-Gina Thomason. “William Seymour: The ‘Female Cabdriver”. Museum of Liverpool, January 2018. Online.

    There is no information of what happened to Seymour after his release from jail.  Hopefully he was able to continue as a cab driver.  

    Of course there are some cis men with no apparent beard.

    This is a hansom cab from the 1870s. which is possibly what Seymour drove:

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    Skippy LaRue was born in Port Arthur, Texas. His father was a boilermaker and bootlegger; his mother ran a house of prostitution where they all lived. His mother beat him frequently.

    He was drinking whiskey from age 5; having sex with boys from age 9. He was expelled from school at age 11 for hustling merchant seamen.

    He discovered the whorehouses across the tracks and was introduced to a madam called Evelyn Hardtimes. He lived there a couple of years. He tended bar and did other chores, and when a customer wanted a boy there he was. He was able to charge 50¢, while the girls charged only 25¢. He was also the only one giving fellatio. His customers included judges, lawyers, police, doctors, military, executives.  He was frequently taken as a girl, even in boys clothes. 

    He was 18 before he was introduced to the gay scene.

    As he grew older Skippy tried straight jobs: retail and delivery. However he kept drifting back into working as female. Skippy (as such) worked a roadhouse serving customers in their cars, and then as a carhop. She went with men but French (oral) only unless they were in the know.

    During WWII, LaRue was excused military service because of an ear injury from his mother’s beatings. He moved to Seattle and worked at Boeing for 72¢ a hour, and then on a ferry lunch counter. He met Jackie Starr, first at a party, and then because they lived in the same building.

    When Skippy started going to the Garden of Allah, Jackie and others encouraged her to perform, and helped with costumes, makeup and how to a do a gaff.  She sometimes performed as Madame Fifi.

    Skippy supplemented the income from performing with running an after-hours bottle club where

    Jackie and Skippy, 1946
    customers pretended that they had brought their own drinks to get around the licensing laws.

    Later Skippy went on the road with Hotcha Hinton and Jackie Starr working carnivals, performing in girlie shows. The other carnies knew what they were, but not the customers. In addition to the show they had a blowoff (sideshow) act where they did a striptease and even, being very confident of their gaffing, they had men pay to touch their genital area.

    They were busted in Oxnard, California and had to prove their male sex to the police chief. However word got out, and the chief simply told them to get out of town.

    In later years, Skippy lived in a mobile home in south Everett, north of Seattle, and worked at a gay bathhouse in Seattle, where he was known as Seattle’s oldest female impersonator. He kept in touch with others, and when Don Paulson was researching his book on the Garden of Allah, Skippy acted as a major resource.

    He died at age 82.
    • Don Paulson & Roger Simpson. An Evening at the Garden of Allah: A Gay Cabaret in Seattle. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996: Chp 7.
    • Gary L. Atkins. Gay Seattle: Stories of Exile and Belonging. University of Washington Press, 2003: 63.
    • Mara Dauphin. "‘A bit of Woman in Every Man’: Creating Queer Community in Female Impersonation”. Valley Humanities Review, Spring 2012.: 11, 14. Online.
    • Don Paulson. “South End Steam Baths”. Seattle Gay News. Online.

    Don Paulson and Skippy LaRue photograph collection, 1903-2000


    The 1930s were rather different.  On p126 of Paulson & Simpson, Skippy says "a twelve-year-old boy was no different than a a twelve-year-old girl.  At that time, many girls became prostitutes at twelve or thirteen,"

     72¢ a hour does not sound much, but at that time one could rent an apartment for $10 a week.

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    RT (Russia Today) sometimes produces intriguing documentaries well worth thinking about.   This is not one of their best.  They interview three persons, raised as boys, who transitioned to female, and live in Arizona.  Two, Billy Burleigh and the perennial Walt Heyer, have reverted, and the third, Rene Jaz (who continues to present as female) has written a book Don't get on the plane: Why a sex change will ruin your life.  Jaz and Heyer were patients of Dr Biber.

    The documentary also includes a brief interview with a sex-change surgeon.   As they actually went to Arizona, the expectation would be that they would interview Drs Toby Meltzer and Ellie Zara Lay, both well regarded surgeons in Scottsdale, Arizona.   However the documentary goes to Belgrade instead to interview Dr Miroslav Djordjevic (or is it recycled footage from another program?).   Again a well-regarded surgeon, but why go to Serbia when making a film about Arizona?

    There are several points that can be made.   Nowhere is it stated that the vast majority of trans (97% or so) persons who have surgery are pleased and remain pleased with what they have achieved.  On the other hand Heyer is allowed to spout his dubious statistics claiming that 40% of trans suicides are post-transition.

    The infrequency of reversion is demonstrated by the repeated use of the same few persons, in this case Walt Heyer.  Neither the narration nor the final credits say so, but I suspect that the RT film-crew went to Heyer who introduced them to the other two.   Heyer actually says that he was in contact with Billy previously, and in this article  by Heyer discusses Jaz and her book.   Heyer has been in so many programs of this type.

    Let us return to Jaz's book,  Don't get on the plane: Why a sex change will ruin your life.   The summary on Amazon contains an enormous clunker:  "medicine is operating in the same ignorance and arrogance as it did when Magnus Hirschfeld killed Einer Wegener (The Danish Girl) with his experimental surgery in 1930".    As we know, but apparently Jaz does not, Lili Elevenes (whose pen name was Lili Elbe) was a patient of the Dresden Doctor Kurt Warnekros, not of the Berlin Doctor Magnus Hirschfeld.   Also Hirschfeld was not a surgeon.  The three trans women who were patients of Hirschfeld, Carla van Crist, Toni Ebel and Dörchen Richter, all survived their operations and two of them lived into the 1960s.  Bad fact checking like this makes one think that the book is not worth reading.

    It is important to read one's enemies.   If you are building up to gender surgery, it may be useful to watch this documentary to know what one is not.   There is much diversity among trans women, and you will probably be aware of how different you are from these three. 

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    Willi Pape was raised in the Berlin suburb of Spandau.  His father owned a wooden-shoe factory and his mother was a dressmaker. He had said from an early age that he did not want to be a boy, and took pleasure in female clothing, and in working with his mother as she made dresses.   

    In teenage he had seen a female impersonation on the stage of a Berlin variety theatre, and very much wished to do the same. His parents had arranged for Willy to study to become an artist, and he was engaged to a young woman, Emma, whom he loved and with whom he had been intimate.  

    Reading in the newspaper that a male-impersonator in Hamburg was looking for an opposite-sex partner, Willi, who was then 17, stole 300 marks from his parents and travelled to Hamburg, where firstly he purchased female clothing.  The project did not realize, and Willi further travelled to Stettin and then back to Berlin.  This was done while presenting as female, travelling in the women’s section on trains, and registering in hotels as Selma Bruegge.   Not knowing how to continue, Selma took a hotel room in Friedrichstadt and cut the arteries of her left hand.   

    Pape was rescued by the hotel staff and taken to the Urban hospital.  Given the circumstances of her dress, the head physician contacted Magnus Hirschfeld, who visited on the third day after admission.  Willi confided in Hirschfeld, and also mentioned that he did not find men attractive, and could not understand that such was possible.  Hirschfeld contacted the parents, explained the situation and led them to understand that the best solution was to allow Willi to become a performer.  

    Using the stage name of Voo-Doo, Pape became a Travestiekűnstler,  Pape is discussed in the Suicide chapter of Hirscheld’s Die Transvestiten as P. from Standau, and is pictured under the name of Willy Pape in Hirschfeld’s Der erotische Verkleidungstrieb (fig. 5.15), where he is described as a “highly successful Variété artist who performs as a Snake Dancer”.  

    Pape actually presented himself in female clothing when summoned for military service in 1914.  
    By 1918 Willi had a male lover, Emile Schmidt, but never set foot in a gay establishment until ten years after that.    

    Willi became a prominent figure in Berlin’s sexual subculture.  In 1927, by which time Voo-Doo was celebrated across Europe, the lesbian magazine Die Freundinfeatured a photograph of Voo-Doo alongside an article about women’s fashion (fig. 5.16). The article, introduced by the magazine’s editor as an “Open Forum regarding Questions of Fashion,” launched what she hoped would be a “lively discussion regarding this timely issue.”

    ·         Magnus Hirschfeld translated from the German by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash. Transvestites: The Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress Prometheus Books. 1991: 316-8.

    ·         Magnus Hirschfeld and Max Tilke, Der erotische Verkleidungstrieb (Der Transvestiten), Illustrierter Teil (Berlin: A. Pulvermacher, 1912: Tafel XVI..

    ·         Anonymous, “Meinungsaustausch über Modefragen: Ein Mann über Damenmode,” Die Freundin, Jg. 4, 14, 1927: 27-28.

    ·         “(Photo Gerlach) Der Transvestit Voo-Doo, einer der bekanntesten internationalen Tanzsterne.” Die Freundin, Jg. 3, 4, 1927: 27.

    ·         Jens Dobler. Der Travestiekünstler Willy Pape alias Voo-Doo. Invertito 6, 2004:110-21.

    ·         Rainer Herrn. Schnittmuster des Gesch-lechts. Transvestitismus und Trans-sexualität in der frühen Sexual-wissenschaft. Giessen: Psychosozial-Verlag 2005: 76, 93. 

    ·         Julie Nero. Hannah Höch, Til Brugman, Lesbianism, and Weimar Sexual Subculture. PhD Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, 2013: 234-5.

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      Charlotte McLeod:
      Part 1: Youth and Copenhagen
      Part II: fame and marriage
      Part III: The geography of Charlotte McLeod in New York, 1957

      1.   45 East 68th Street.  The home of Dorothy Kilgallen and Richard Kollmar.  “I got tired of Dorothy Kilgallen chasing me around and writing things about me that I have never thought of doing. And I went to her house one day and knocked on her door and the butler recognized me, it was strange, he said, ‘aren’t you Miss Charlotte?’ And I said, yes. And he said, don’t go away. I said, well I have no intention, that’s why I’m here. So I met Dorothy. And I said, well Dorothy, I’m tired of this, this business and I need a job. If you’ll help me get a job, I’ll tell you anything you want to know."

      2.  44 East 67th Street.  The then office of Harry Benjamin. 

      3.  318 51st Street.   The Washington-Jefferson Hotel where Charlotte lived.   This is still in business. Its rooms are now $126 a night and up. Charlotte says: it “was a place for retired show people who lived there” which probably means that even after adjusting for inflation it was cheaper in 1957, particularly if you paid by the month. 

      4.  723 7th Ave.   Maxie's.  A restaurant close-by that Charlotte sometimes visited.   There she ran into Ralph Heidal, whom she had met in Bergen, Norway, and had stayed in touch with by mail. They married in 1959.

      5.  309 West 50th Street.  The West Bank Club, owned by Richard Kollmar, where Charlotte worked as a hostess and hat-check girl.   It was there that she met Harry Benjamin, who came in as a customer.   

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      Rachel Horsham (1946 - )

      Horsham was raised in a small village in Surrey, with a father who had been born in India, and a mother from Ireland. Horsham knew from an early age that she was not really male. As Rachel she emigrated to the Netherlands in 1974 because that country recognised trans women as women at a time when the UK did not.

      She became a patient of Professor Dr Louis Gooren at the Vrije Universiteit (Free University) of Amsterdam, wrote the first version of her autobiography in 1991, and completed transition in 1992.

      She applied to the UK Consulate for a re-issued UK passport in her new name and gender:

      “During an interview with the Consul, I was informed that it was not possible to be issued with a new passport reflecting my current status, at the time. Nor would they accept a letter of Deed Poll from a Solicitor for a change of forenames. Their reasoning: that the issuing of passports to transsexuals in the United Kingdom, showing their female status, on production of a letter of Deed Poll from a Solicitor, and a letter of acknowledgement from a qualified doctor, that the bearer was a transsexual, was not legal outside of the United Kingdom.” (Plaintiff’s Observations)
      She was told that she needed an order from a Dutch Court. This was obtained and the passport re-issued. She became a Dutch citizen in 1993, and obtained a ruling in a Dutch court that her UK birth certificate should be amended. As this did not happen she initiated legal proceedings in the UK. This was appealed to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in 1994.

      Kristina Sheffield (also born 1946)

      Sheffield was a pilot with Brittania Airways, and had 34 years experience when she transitioned in 1986.

      Kristina divorced from her wife as was almost always required in the 1990s (in retrospect she felt that she had been coerced into it underhandedly), and a judge also granted an injunction banning Kristina from seeing her daughter as “transsexuals are not suitable company for children”.

      She applied to every UK airline, but was always obliged to show her birth certificate which said that she was born male, which resulted in her not getting employment.

      While her passport was re-issued in her new name, she was still unable to obtain a US visa, and twice in court to stand surety for a friend, was obliged to reveal her previous name. A misunderstanding with the police with regards to a replica firearm indicated that they were aware of her gender change although the topic had not come up. A request under the Data Protection Act 1984 would have required her to state all previous names.

      She also appealed through the UK court system and then to the ECHR.

      And then

      Both cases were initially accepted by the ECHR in 1994. Kristina met with Rachel in Amsterdam. Following advice from Rachel, Kristina revised the statement of her case. This made the two cases rather similar although the circumstances were different, in that Rachel wanted to marry and Kristina to find employment. The ECHR decided to couple both appeals.

      Rachel, with Kristina’s assistance researched the Ewan Forbes-Sempill case and the Corbett divorce case. They obtained the birth certificates for April Ashley, Roberta Cowell, Michael Dillon and Georgina Turtle, and the marriage certificates for Georgina Turtle and April Ashley. Only April had not had her birth certificate amended re her name and sex. From this they were able to conclude that the Corbetts’ divorce trial could have been quickly concluded in that April was still legally male and thus the marriage was invalid according to the law at that time. There was no need for the detailed medical examinations that were done. Unless, of course, something other than an annulment of marriage was being enacted.

      The original birth certificate for Ewan Forbes-Sempill proved impossible to obtain, however a copy specifying his male sex and name was available. The Sempill and Corbett cases had been more about establishing the boundaries of aristocratic privilege than of determining the best governance of transsexuals.
      “It was also found, that there had been prior knowledge of these birth certificates by the plaintiffs of former cases that had gone to the ECHR. They were the cases of Rees and later Cossey. None of the fact that it was possible to amend a birth certificate, within existing statute law, was ever presented to the ECHR in those cases. They were based on a demand that the UK government must change the law. The court in those cases was not prepared to demand that a government must restructure its laws. Both cases lost and this created a case law in the ECHR upon which any further cases from the UK would be accepted and judged. The ECHR works on the basis of creating its own case law upon which to judge a case presented to them and where they have none they create it. If a case challenges existing case law, then the court can examine the situation.” (Rachel Horsham .4)
      In May 1996, Rachel wrote an anonymous article that was published in The Independent, "Trapped in a man's body with a woman's mind". She detailed the then lack of human rights for transsexuals in the UK; explained how HRT and reconstructive surgery have a 97% success rate and attributed the condition to an incongruence of pre-natal hormones (a theory that was accepted in the late 1990s). She rightly points to the 1970 Corbett v Corbett divorce case as the point where things went wrong.
      “All that is required is for government to accept a return to the pre-1970 status quo, a move that is supported by medicine, a large section of legal opinion and many parliamentarians. There is no need for new legislation or new administrative systems; the Birth Certificate still contains a column where errors at registration can be corrected as they were before 1970. Time has shown that there were no practical complications with those corrections, and thus there is no realistic argument for not reinstating the practice. Indeed, there is every reason for regarding it as an urgent necessity.”
      The ECHR gave its judgement 30 July 1998. By 11 to 9 it voted that the Article 8 right to respect for a private life was not violated (although the court noted “no steps taken by respondent State to keep need for appropriate legal measures in this area under review despite Court’s view to that effect in Rees and Cossey judgments — Court reiterates that view”). By 18 votes to 2 it voted that the Article 12 right to contract lawful marriage was not violated. Unanimously it voted that Article 14, the right not to be subjected to difference in treatment was not violated. The judgment does not address Horsham’s argument that Corbett vs Corbett was a bad judgment and a simple reversal would solve the problems.

      As Rachel summarises the result on her home page:
      “The United Kingdom rejected [the plaintiffs’ plea] on the grounds that under British law a person’s sex is fixed at birth and cannot be amended or changed and argued that the Court of Human Rights had given two Judgments in their favour upholding this contention in two previous cases, Rees and Cossey. The plaintiff, in her submissions, proved that the government had lied to the court in those previous cases, and that English Statute law did have the required legislation to amend a person's birth certificate, in such cases. In 1998 the court decided to uphold its case law based on Rees and Cossey and the case of Rachel Horsham was never judged on the facts presented to them.”
      Rachel expanded her autobiography to include the appeal to ECHR, and published it, also in 1998.
      Kristina won an employment discrimination case in 1998 at an industrial tribunal in that she was unable to obtain even an interview with Easyjet to be a pilot despite her 34 years’ experience.


      In 1997, after 18 years of homophobic Conservative misrule, the Labour Party became the new government. Initially it continued the Conservatives’ homophobic policies, one of which was to oppose appeals such as that by Horsham & Sheffield. The GLBT censorship known as Section 28 was not repealed until 2003.

      While government lawyers were in Strasburg arguing against the petitions of Horsham and Sheffield, Petra Henderson, British but resident in Germany, had completed surgical transition and wished to be recognised legally as female, which the government quietly permitted. She had threatened to go to the ECHR and the Government wished to keep her out of the newspapers. It was insisted that this was a one-off exemption and did not set a precedent. There were some other similar one-offs, such as the UK citizen in Paris who was able to obtain a similar result with Petra's assistance. Prime Minister Tony Blair spoke of ‘joined-up government’, but this was one area where it was definitely not so.

      Press for Change had been founded in 1992. It engaged with lawyers and Members of Parliament. Inevitably a slow process. A private member's bill was introduced in 1996, but as the then Conservative Government refused to endorse it, it was without success. In 2002, another appeal to the ECHR finally met with success, and two years after that the Labour Government passed the Gender Recognition Act – not perfect, but the best in the world at that time.


      Rachel’s book is not listed in either Amazon or Abebooks. It is on the Dwarf Empire web page.

      In recent years Rachel has self-identified as HBS, although independently of the two major strands thereof.   In 1998 the only Benjamin Syndrome movement was the Association du Syndrome de Benjamin in Paris run by Tom Reucher, Diane Potiron, Hugues Cariou, and which was inclusive unlike the HBS movement which developed after 2005.
      • "Trapped in a man's body with a woman's mind", The Independent, 1 May 1996. Online.
      • Rosa Prince. “Transsexuals in test case”. The Independent, 22 February 1998. Online.
      • “British Pilot Wins Discrimination Case”. NewsPlanet, June 1, 1998. Online.
      • Case of Sheffield and Horsham v. The United Kingdom. European Court of Human Rights, 30 July 1998. Online.
      • “UK Transsexuals lose court case”. BBC News, July 30, 1998. Online.
      • Christine Burns. “Court Judgement Criticises UK Government's Lack of Action”. PFC, 9th August 1998. Online.
      • Rachel Horsham. Release of the Dove. Dwarf Empire, 1991 and 1998.

      Rachel Horsham’s Home Page

      0 0

      Prior to the June 2016 shootings at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Florida, the deadliest attack on gay people was the 24 June 1973 arson attack at the Up Stairs Lounge, 141 Chartres Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans. The prime suspect is a gay man who had been ejected from the bar earlier in the day. He was never charged and killed himself 17 months later.

      On 24 June, the Metropolitan Community Church was having a social after its religious service on the final day of Pride Weekend. Just before 8PM the door buzzer from downstairs rang, and the door was opened revealing the stairs to be on fire, along with the smell of lighter fluid. The bartender led some 20 patrons out through the back entrance and to safety. However others were accidently locked in. 29 died, and another 18 were injured, of whom three later died.

      Among the dead was Reginald Adams, an Afro-American from Dallas who had been studying at Loyola University in New Orleans, initially with the aim of becoming a Jesuit priest. At the Up Stairs lounge he had met the still young Ricky Soleto, who did drag acts, and was trying out some feminine personae. They became a couple, one of the few inter-racial gay couples in New Orleans at that time. The ambition to become a priest was being abandoned.

      It was Reginald who suggested that Ricky become Regina, not so much from his name, but because she was his queen, which is what ‘Regina’ means. He started to wear Ricky’s high-school ring, and they shared an apartment in the French Quarter.

      Regina and Reginald were both at the Up Stairs social on the fatal night. They realized that they did not have enough money for a dinner arrangement afterwards, and, having finished her drink, it was Regina who went home to get some, and also a borrowed hat to be returned. As she returned she saw the flames and fire engines were arriving. She could not find Reginald, and searched at Charity Hospital, where the victims were taken, but without success.

      She was in shock. She continued to lay out Reginald’s clothes each day, even after her mother moved in to take care of her. Reginald was one of the last to be identified, being burnt beyond recognition. He was finally identified by dental records and by the high-school ring on his finger.

      After her recovery, Regina became well known performer in New Orleans, first as a drag performer, and then as a woman. In 1980 Regina legally changed her name to Regina Adams, honoring the man who should have been her husband.

      Because of Hurricane Katrina, there was no Southern Decadence in 2005. Therefore joint Grand Marshalls Lisa Beaumann and Regina Adams reigned in both 2005 and 2006.
      • Johnny Townsend. Let the Faggots Burn: The Upstairs Lounge Fire. BookLocker, 2011: 302-4.
      • Clayton Delery-Edwards. The Up Stairs Lounge Arson: Thirty-Two Deaths in a New Orleans Gay Bar, June 24, 1973. McFarland & Company, 2014: 29, 36, 38, 45, 49-50, 52, 73, 88, 108, 121.
      • Diana Anderson-Minshall. “Book of the year: Biography Documenting Worst Mass Killing of Gays in U.S. History”. Advocate, March 03 2015. Online.
      • “Transgender Mormon Survives Mass Murder“. Main Street Plaza, October 6, 2015. Online.
      • Robert L Camina (dir & scr). Upstairs Inferno, with Regina Adams. US 96 mins 2015.
      • Jim Downs. Stand by Me The Forgotten History of Gay Liberation. Basic Books, 2016: 28.
      • “Deadly 1973 hate crime recalled in new documentary”. Washington Blade, February 9, 2017. Online.
      • Robert W. Fieseler. Tinderbox: The Untold Story of the Up Stairs Lounge Fire and the Rise of Gay Liberation. Liveright, 2018: 36 -7, 59-60, 68-9, 87, 123, 150, 225, 235, 267n62.
      Celebrazzi 2006


      0 0

      Lois Jean Gill was raised in Pittsburgh, and was first arrested at age 18. By the late 1950s Gill was an accomplished horse-rider, was working as a blacksmith.

      From 1963 Gill worked as a prostitute, and was arrested for it the next year. Otherwise Gill was a retailer, running a baby furniture shop and a frozen foods store. By 1968 Gillwas giving his name as Dante, and explained that he was a man.

      He became involved with George Lee, the Pittsburgh mobster involved with pornography and prostitution. Gill’s mother Agnes died in 1973 after a struggle with cancer. Afterwards Gill became manager of one of Lee’s massage parlors (where sexual services were available). Here Gill learned the sex business: how to deal with johns and vice cops, how to run a legitimate cover business.

      George Lee was gunned down in 1977, which set off a battle for his assets. Nick DeLucia, a former fireman, took several of the parlors, and for a while Gill was his business partner. However not without a struggle: one employee was murdered at home; a parlor was destroyed by a package bomb received at Christmas and one sex worker was killed. Amidst this, Dante found the time to marry Cynthia Bruno from Texas on a vacation in Hawai’i. They lived together in Pittsburgh, although the marriage did not last.

      In November, the gay bar in Tampa, Florida run by an associate, Frank Cocchiara, burned down. Gill gave him a job running one of the parlors in Pittsburgh. Cocchiara became a regular at Pittsburgh’s drag balls, befriended local gay activist Herb Beatty and was one of the first to become HIV+.

      In 1980 an arson attack destroyed one of Gill’s parlors, killing three men who were sleeping on the top floor. The partnership between DeLucia and Gill had degenerated to antagonism. DeLucia and some associates were even charged with an alleged plot to kill Gill (although due to a key witness’ attempt to extort money from the defense, nothing was ever proven in court).

      Dante was tough enough to hold on. He got both his adversaries and the police to refer to him as Mr Gill. He expanded into gay bars, and into supplying anabolic steroids. He dressed expensively, traveled the world and collected rare animals. He was known for reciting Irish poetry.
      Dante & Cynthia 1984

      DeLucia was jailed for tax evasion in 1981. Then Gill attempted to re-introduce Lee’s old monopoly by chasing the competition out of town. However he claimed to earn only $60,000 for income tax purposes, but the tax authorities were able to demonstrate that he was spending much more than that. They also found that each of his parlors brought in more than $500,000 each year.

      In 1984 he was arrested, convicted and jailed for tax evasion. He was sentenced to 7 years, but paroled in 1987. The tax authorities filed a $12.5 million claim against him. However he no longer had much money.

      Also he required dialysis. He died in hospital aged 72.
      • Torsten Ove. “Obituary: Dante ‘Tex’ Gill / Sexually ambivalent rub parlor owner”. Pittsburgh Post-Gazett, January 09, 2003. Online.
      • “The complex and tough Dante ‘Tex’ Gill. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 17, 2014. Online.
      • “Revealed: The incredible life of transgender gangster Mr Gill who controlled a criminal empire of brothels in 1970s Pittsburgh and will controversially be portrayed by Scarlett Johansson in her latest movie”. The Daily Mail, 6 July 2018. Online.
      • Furio_from_naples. “Dante ‘Tex’ Gill vs Pittsburgh Mafia”., 07/23/18. Online.
      • Richard Gazarik. Wicked Pittsburgh. The History Press, 2018: 123-5.


      0 0

      The two biggest publishers on trans topics continue to be Routledge and Jessica Kingsley. Routledge books are almost invariably priced so high that you would not buy them, although your library may do so. Jessica Kingsley books are reasonable priced. The odd thing though is that when you go to the Jessica Kingsley web site you find a list of ‘Subject Areas’ but the list does not include Transgender.

      $£¥ €=Excessively overpriced books. 

      • $£¥ € Aren Z Aizura. Mobile Subjects: Transnational Imaginaries of Gender Reassignment. Duke University Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Michael J Boucher. Transgender Representation and the Politics of the Real in the United States. Routledge, 2019.
      • $£¥ € B Caminga.Transgender Refugees and the Imagined South Africa: Bodies Over Borders and Borders Over Bodies. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
      • Andre Cavalcante. Struggling for Ordinary: Media and Transgender Belonging in Everyday Life. New York University Press, 2018.
      • Edward Burlton Davies. Third Wave Feminism and Transgender: Strength through Diversity. Routledge, 2018.
      • Heath Foff Davis. Beyond Trans: Does Gender Matter. NYU Press, 2017.
      • Evelyn Deshane (ed). #Trans: an anthology about transgender and nonbinary identity online. CreateSpace, 2017.
      • Oren Goslan. Current Critical Debates in the Field of Transsexual Studies: InTransition. Routledge, 2018.
      • Az Hakeem. Trans: Exploring Gender Identity and Gender Dysphoria. Trigger Press, 2018.
      • Jack Halberstam. Trans: A Quick and Quirky Account of Gender Variability. University of California Press, 2018.
      • Sally Hines. Is Gender Fluid?: Primers for the 21st Century. Thames and Hudson, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Nina Kane (ed). Reflections on Female and Trans* Masculinities and Other Queer Crossings. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017.
      • C. N. Lester. Trans Like Me: Conversations for All of Us. Seal Press, 2018.
      • Yolanda Martinez-San Miguel & Sarah Tobias (eds). Trans Studies: The Challenge to Hetero/Homo Normativities. Rutgers University Press, 2016.
      • $£¥ € Candace Moore. Marginal Production Cultures: Infrastructures of Sexual Minority and Transgender Media. Routledge, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Z Nicolazzo. What’s Transgressive about Trans* Studies in Education Now? Routledge, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Larry Nuttbrock (ed). Transgender Sex Work and Society. Harrington Park Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Erich N Pitcher. Being and Becoming Professionally Other: Identities, Voices, and Experiences of U.S. Trans* Academics. Peter Lang Inc, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Christina Richards, Walter Pierre Bouman & Meg-John Barker (eds). Genderqueer and Non-Binary Genders (Critical and Applied Approaches in Sexuality, Gender and Identity). Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
      • Juno Roche. Queer sex: A Trans and Non-Binary Guide to Intimacy, Pleasure and Relationships. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Gayle Salamon. ‘The Life and Death of Latisha King: A Critical Phenomenology of Transphobia’. NYU Press, 2018.
      • Dean Spade et al. Written on the Body: Letters from Trans and Non-Binary Survivors of Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Brynn Tannehill. Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Trans*. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Jemma Tosh. Psychology and Gender Dysphoria: Feminist and Transgender Perspectives. Routledge, 2018.
      • Clair Ruth Winter. Understanding Transgender Diversity: A Sensible Explanation of Sexual and Gender Identities. CreateSpace, 2018.
      • Chantal Zabus & David Coad. Transgender Experience: Place, Ethnicity, and Visibility. Routladge, 2018.

      Christian and Jewish

      • Austen Hartke. Transforming: The Bible & the Lives of Transgender Christians. WJK Books, 2018.
      • Abegail Hester. Transgender Christian 101: A Biblical Case For The Acceptance Of Transgender People In The Church. Kindle, 2018.
      • Joy Ladin. The Soul of the Stranger: Reading God and Torah from a Transgender Perspective. Brandeis, 2018.
      • Laurie Scott. God Doesn't Make Mistakes: Confessions of a Transgender Christian. Tek-Chic Systems, 2018.
      • Andrew T Walker. God and the Transgender Debate. The Good Book Company, 2018.
      • Jonathan Williams. She’s My Dad. Westminster John Knox, 2018. By the son of Paula Williams.

      Legal & Imprisonment

      • Stephen Dillon. Fugitive Life: The Queer Politics of the Prison State. Duke University Press 2018.
      • Alison Ash Fogarty & Lily Zheng. Gender Ambiguity in the Workplace: Transgender and Gender-Diverse Discrimination. Praeger, 2018.
      • Marty Gitlin. Transgender Rights. Greenhaven Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Pater Goodrich. Schreber's Law: Jurisprudence and Judgment in Transition. Edinburgh University Press, 2018. An interpretation of the legal writings of of Daniel Paul Schreber.
      • $£¥ € Heather Panter. Transgender Cops: The Intersection of Gender and Sexuality Expectations in Police Cultures. Routledge, 2018.
      • Jens M Scherpe, Anatol Dutta & Tobias Helms (eds). The Legal Status of Intersex Persons. Intersentia, 2018.
      • Alex Sharpe. Sexual Intimacy and Gender Identity 'Fraud': Reframing the Legal and Ethical Debate. Routledge, 2018.

      Health and Medical

      • $£¥ € Sarah Boslaugh. Transgender Health Issues. Greenwood, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Sand C Chang & Annaliese A Singh. A Clinician's Guide to Gender-Affirming Care: Working with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Clients. Context Press, 208.
      • $£¥ € Cecelia Hardacker. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Health and Aging. Springer, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Ruth Pearce. Understanding Trans Health: Discourse, Power and Possibility. Policy Press, 2018
      • Eric Plemons. The Look of a Woman: Facial Feminization Surgery and the Aims of Trans- Medicine. Duke University Press, 2018.
      • Miguel Rosello-Penaloza. NO BODY: Clinical Constructions of Gender and Transsexuality - Pathologisation, Violence and Deconstruction. Routledge, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Loren S Schechter & Bauback Safa. Gender Confirmation Surgery. Elsevier, 2018.
      • Benjamin Vincent. Transgender Health: A Practitioner's Guide to Binary and Non-Binary Trans Patient Care. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018.
      • Eric Yarbrough. Transgender Mental Health. American Psychiatric Association, 2018.


      • Cael M Keegan. Lana and Lilly Wachowski. University of Illinois Press, 2018.  An analysis of the films.
      • $£¥ € Rachel Carroll. Transgender and The Literary Imagination: Changing Gender in Twentieth-Century Writing. Edinbugh University Press, 2018.


      • Kike Arnal. Revealing Selves: Transgender Portraits from Argentina. The New Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Jess T. Dugan & Vanessa Fabbre. To Survive on This Shore: Photographs and Interviews with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Older Adults. Kehrer, 2018.
      • Pilar Vergara. Female. Daylight Books, 2018.


      • $£¥ € Vikki Krane. Sex, Gender, and Sexuality in Sport: Queer Inquiries. Routledge, 2018.


      • $£¥ € Richard K Adler, Sandy Hirsch & Jack Pickering.Voice and Communication Therapy for the Transgender/Gender Diverse Client: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide, Third Edition. Plural Publishing, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Walter Pierre Bouman, Annelou LC de Vries & Guy T’Sjoen (eds). Gender Dysphoria and Gender Incongruence. Routledge, 2018.
      • Hannah Brooks-Lane. Transgender Voice Workbook. Independent, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Chester Alexis C Buama. Sexual Orientation and Transgender Issues in Organizations: Towards an Inclusive Human Resource Practice. Society, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Alfred F Carlozzi & Kurt T Choate (eds). Transgender and Gender Diverse Persons: A Handbook for Service Providers, Educators, and Families. Routledge, 2018.
      • Sarah Gibson & J Fernandez. Gender Diversity and Non-Binary Inclusion in the Workplace: The Essential Guide for Employers. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Abbie Olszewski, Selah Sullivan & Adriano Cabral. Here's How to Teach Voice and Communication Skills to Transgender Women. Plural Publishing, 2018.
      • Dana Pizzuti. Transitioning in the Workplace: A Guidebook. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Juno Roche. Queer Sex: A Trans and Non-Binary Guide to Intimacy, Pleasure and Relationships. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018.
      • Vanessa Sheridan & Mike Quigley. Transgender in the Workplace: The Complete Guide to the New Authenticity for Employers and Gender-Diverse Professionals. Praeger, 2018.
      • Matthew Waites. Supporting Young Transgender Men: A Guide for Professionals. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Jamie Winters. TransForm: Answers to the Trans Questions You Have No Idea How to Ask (Questions from Trans Everything Book 1). Kindle, 2018.
      • Vera Wylde. Skirting Gender: Life and Lessons of a Cross Dresser. Nathaniel Wayne, 2018.

      Trans Children

      • Fox Fisher & Owl Fisher. Trans Teen Survival Guide. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Julian Gill-Peterson. Histories of the Transgender Child. University of Minnesota Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Colt Keo-Meier & Diane Ehrensaft (eds). The Gender Affirmative Model: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Supporting Transgender and Gender Expansive Children. Americam Psychological Association, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Aron Janssen & Scott Leibowitz (eds), Affirmative Mental Health Care for Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth: A Clinical Guide. Springer, 2018.
      • Irwin Krieger. Helping Your Transgender Teen, 2nd Edition: A Guide for Parents. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Tey Meadow. Trans Kids: Being Gendered in the Twenty-First Century. University of California Press, 2018.
      • Denise O’Doherty. Thriving Through Transition: Self-Care for Parents of Transgender Children. Sojourn Publishing, 2018.
      • Kelly Storck & Noah Grigni. The Gender Identity Workbook for Kids: A Guide to Exploring Who You Are. Instant Help, 2018.
      • Ann Travers. The Trans Generation: How Trans Kids (and Their Parents) Are Creating a Gender Revolution. New York University Press, 2018.

      Couples & Family

      • Anne M Reid. She Said She Said: Love, Loss, Living My New Normal. Christopher Griffith, 2018.



      • Caspar Baldwin. Not Just a Tomboy: A Trans Masculine Memoir. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.
      • Ben Barres & Nancy Hopkins. The Autobiography of a Transgender Scientist. The MIT Press, 2018.
      • Brian Belovitch. Trans Figured: My Journey from Boy to Girl to Woman to Man. Skyhorse Publishing, 2018.
      • Eve Burchert. Reflections: Transgender at 7, Out at 84. Kindle, 2018.
      • Tess deCarlo. The T Words. Lulu, 2018.
      • Michael Dillon/Lobzang Jivaka. Out of the Ordinary: A Life of Gender and Spiritual Transitions. Fordham University Press, 2019. Finally Dillon’s own autobiography – 60 years after he dies.
      • Carla Anne Ernst. Life Without Pockets: My Long Journey Into Womanhood. Henschel Haus, 2018.
      • Allyson Hamblett. A Life Lived Twice. Allyson Hamblett, 2018/
      • Kenna Henderson. I’m not the Man I Used to Be. Independent, 2018.
      • Rene Jax. Don't get on the plane: Why a sex change will ruin your life. CreateSpace, 2017.
      • Julia Kaye. Super Late Bloomer: My Early Days in Transition. Andrew McMeel Publishing, 2018.
      • Diana Kelly. The Sky Turned Green & The Grass Turned Blue: Diane's Story: My Personal Journey as the Significant Other to an M2F Transsexual. Green Sky Publishing, 2018.
      • Janet Mock. Surpassing Certainty: What My Twenties Taught Me. Atria Books, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Julie Elizabeth Peters. A Feminist Post-transsexual Autoethnography: Challenging Normative Gender Coercion. Routledge, 2018.
      • Sarah Krasnostein. The Trauma Cleaner: One woman’s extraordinary life in death, decay & disaster. The Text Publishing Company, 2017.
      • Joanna Santos. Different. Lulu, 2018.
      • Chloe Schwenke.. SELF-ish: A Transgender Awakening. Red Hen Press, 2018.
      • Daia Singleton. Kissing Boys and Running: A Transgender Memoir. Kindle, 2018.
      • Rhyannon Styles. The New Girl: A Trans Girl Tells It Like It Is. Headline, 2018.
      • Mia Violet. Yes, You Are Trans Enough: My Transition from Self-Loathing to Self-Love. Jessica Kingsley, 2018.

      Doctor Autobiography

      • Richard Green. GAY RIGHTS,TRANS RIGHTS: A psychiatrist/lawyer's 50-year battle. Agenda Book, 2018.


      • Jeremy Dronefield & Michael Du Preez. Dr James Barry: A Woman Ahead of her Time. Oneworld Publications, 2017.  Warning: presents Barry as a woman, not as a trans man.
      • Jane Fae. Transition Denied: Confronting the Crisis in Trans Healthcare. (the life and death of a young trans woman, Synestra de Courcy) Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018.
      • $£¥ €= Ann Heilman. Neo-_Victorian Biographilia and James Miranda Barry: A Study in Transgender and Transgenre. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
      • Dick Kirby. The Wrong Man: The Shooting of Stephen Waldorf and the Hunt for David Martin. The History Press, 2016.  A transvestite burglar in 1960s London. 
      • Lisa Ohliger. The Narrative of Lucy Ann Lobdell: A Woman's Case for Equality. Westholme Publishing, 2018.
      • Daphne C Reiley. Love, Then Listen: Sharing My Son's Journey Toward His True Gender. Nururing Faith Inc, 2018.
      • Lanei M Ridemeyer. Lou Sullivan Diaries (1970-1980) and Theories of Sexual Embodiment. Springer, 2018.
      • Angela Steidele , translated from German by Katy Derbyshire. Gentleman Jack: A biography of Anne Lister, Regency Landowner, Seducer and Secret Diarist. Profile Bokks, 2018.

      Race and Gender

      • Rogers Brubaker. Trans: Gender and Race in an Age of Unsettled Identities. Princeton University Press, 2018.

      Trans/GLBT history

      • $£¥ € Thomas A Abercrombie. Passing to América: Antonio (Née María) Yta's Transgressive, Transatlantic Life in the Twilight of the Spanish Empire. Penn State University Press, 2018.
      • Christine Burns (ed). Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018.
      • Martin Dammann. Soldier Studies: Cross-Dressing in der Wehrmacht. Hatje/Cantz, 2018.
      • Jim Elledge. The Boys of Fairy Town: Sodomites, Female Impersonators, Third-Sexers, Pansies, Queers, and Sex Morons in Chicago's First Century. Chicago Review Press, 2018.
      • Julian Gill-Peterson. Genealogies of the Transgender Child: Sex, Race, and Plasticity University of Minnesota Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € William T Hoston. Toxic Silence: Race, Black Gender Identity, and Addressing the Violence against Black Transgender Women in Houston. Peter Lang Inc, 2018.
      • Norena Shopland. Forbidden Lives: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Stories from Wales. Seren, 2017.
      • Howard Philips Smith. Unveiling the Muse: The Lost History of Gay Carnival in New Orleans. University Press of Mississippi, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Jami Kathleen Taylor, Donald P Haider-Markel. The Remarkable Rise of Transgender Rights. University of Michigan Press, 2018.

      Other Cultures

      • T Jackie Cuevas. Post-Borderlandia: Chicana Literature and Gender Variant Critique. Rutgers University Press, 2018.
      • Nandini Krishnan. Invisible Men: Inside India's Transmasculine Network. Penguin Viking, 2018.
      • Slobodan Randjelovic. Lives in Transition: LGBTQ Serbia. The New Press, 2018.
      • $£¥ € Julieta Vartabedian. Brazilian 'Travesti' Migrations: Gender, Sexualities and Embodiment Experiences. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.


      • Wren Hanks. The Rise of Genderqueer: Poems. Brain Mill, 2018.
      • Jamie Winters. TransVerse: Poetry About Being Transgender. Independent, 2018.


      • Samantha Kane. Mohammed and Susan. Diversity Book, 2018.  Yes, that Samantha Kane.


      • Ryan T Anderson. When Harry Became Sally: Responding to the Transgender Moment. Encounter Books, 2018.
      • Ruth Barrett (ed). Female Erasure: What You Need To Know About Gender Politics' War on Women, the Female Sex and Human Rights. Tidal Time Publishing, 2016. With chapters by Germaine Greer, Sheila Jeffreys, Gallus Mag, Cathy Brennan etc.
      • Ashley McGuire. Sex Scandal: The Drive to Abolish Male and Female. Regnery Publishing, 2017.
      • Lisa Nolland et al. The New Normal: The Transgender Agenda. Wilberforce Publications, 2018.
      • Andrew T Walker. God and the Transgender Debate: What Does the Bible Actually Say about Gender Identity? The Good Book Company, 2017.

      Announced for 2019

      • Donald R Laub. Second Lives, Second Chances: A Surgeon's Stories of Transformation. ECW Press, 2019.
      • Hugh Ryan. When Brooklyn Was Queer: A History. St Martin’s Press. 2019.
      • Kristen Worley & Johanna Schneller. Woman Enough: How a Boy Became a Woman and Changed the World of Sport. Random House, 2019.

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      Sampaio, from Aquiraz in the province of Ceará, in the north-east of Brazil, was using the name Valentina by age 10. She was accepted as a girl by her parents, a fisherman and a schoolteacher, and by the local community.

      At college in the nearby provincial capital of Fortaleza, she studied architecture, at the same time as she was doing modelling work. She was fired from at least one gig specifically for being trans.

      However, barely 19 years old, Valentina went from doing local shows and photo shoots to being in São Paulo Fashion Week, and being on the cover of Elle Brasil and L’Officiel Brasil. She had to file a lawsuit to rectify the name and gender on her identity documents, but had a favourable ruling.

      International recognition came when she was on the cover of Vogue Paris, March 2017, with the by-line: ‘Transgender beauty: How it’s shaking up the world’ and with an editorial inside.

      She acted in the film, Berenice Procura, 2017, and is a spokeswoman for L’Oreal Paris.

      • Neto Lucon. “’Nenhuma cirurgia vai me fazer mais ou menos mulher’, diz a modelo trans Valentina Sampaio”., Novembro 14, 2016. Online.
      • Paul McQueen. “Everything You Need to Know About Transgender Model Valentina Sampaio”. Culture Trip, 3 March 2017. Online.
      • Anna Jean Kaiser. “Meet The Transgender Model Who Broke Fashion's Highest Barrier”. Buzzfeed, June 05, 2017. Online.
      • Julirta Vartabedian. Brazilian Travesti Migrations: Gender, Sexualities and Embodiment Experiences. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018: 226-7.
      PT.Wikipedia    IMDB


      Only one week before the issue of Vogue Paris with Valentina on the cover, another trans woman in Forteleza, Dandara dos Santos, 42, was brutally murdered; the crime was recorded on a phone and uploaded to the internet. In this case at least, the killers were convicted and sentenced to 16+ years each.

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      See also  John Randell (1918 – 1982) Psychiatrist.

      In Richard Green's new book

      • Gay Rights, Trans Rights: A psychiatrist/lawyer's 50-year battle.  2018.

      we find on p 154: 

      "Randell was a careful clinician who assessed nearly as many gender dysphoric patients as Harry Benjamin.  John became a friend in my 1966 London fellowship year.  He had a home and family in North London.   But he also had a flat in Central London.  One evening, as we were preparing to go out for drinks and dinner at his club, he went to the wardrobe to get his coat.  There were many dresses on hangers.  'A woman stays here sometimes' he explained.  I thought he had a mistress.  I did not realize that they were his dresses."


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    • 12/17/18--13:40: 2018 Obituaries

    • Milton Edgerton 1921-2018. Surgeon, co-founder of GIC at Johns Hopkins. Died age 96.

      Peter Farrer (1926 – 2017) tax inspector, trans historian, Liverpool. Died age 90.

      Sue-Ellen Jacobs (1936-2017) co-ed Two-Spirit People 1997.

      Lyndsay Kemp (1938-2018) known for his radical drag performances in the 1970s based on Notre Dame des Fleurs and Salome. Mentor to early David Bowie. Died age 80.

      Roberta Perkins (1940 – 2018) sociologist, activist in Sydney, NSW. Died age 78.

      Julia Yasuda (1943-2018) set theorist, performer, one of the original members of Anthony and the Johnsons.  Died age 75, at a time of her own choosing after a long struggle with chronic pain and increasing immobility.

      Brandy Alexander (1946 – 2016) Charlotte, NC, drag performer since 1964. Featured in a mural. Died age 70 from cancer.

      João W Nery (1950 – 2018) psychologist, writer in Sao Paulo. First surgical trans man in Brazil. 4 wives, 2 autobiographies. Dies age 68 after struggle against cancer.

      Boom Boom Latour (1955 – 2016) Charlotte, NC, drag performer for 5 decades. Died age 63 after a major heart attack.

      Joseph Cluse (1954 - 2018) Two husbands. With the second she was a Christian wife and mother, but concluded that she was outside God’s will. Reverted and became a pastor with Crossover and Exodus. Died age 64.

      Tracy Lynn Garner (1960 – 2018) Convicted of killing by buttocks injection. Died in prison age 58 after serving less than three years.

      Terri Bruce (1963 – 2018) Hermosa, SD. Archeologist. In 2017 the ACLU filed a federal lawsuit on Bruce's behalf against the state of South Dakota for refusing to cover medical care for transgender people. Died age 55.

      Michael Berke (1964 – 2018) roadie, reverted to male after becoming involved with the Calvary Chapel mega church in Fort Lauderdale. Featured in an MSNBC documentary in 2008. Died by suicide.

      Christa Leigh Steele-Knudslien (1975 – 2018) 42, launched New England Trans Pride and Miss Trans New England pageant. Murdered by her husband Mark Steele-Knudslien.

      Lara Kruger (1986 – 2018) South African DJ and radio personality, after a period of depression.

      Dudu dos Santos (1991 – 2018) Brazilian military policeman, abducted and murdered.

      Casey Hoke (1997 – 2018). Artist and trans activist, California, died at age 21.

      Murder Count

      Murders in the 12 months up to the Transgender Day of Remembrance. GayStarNews. Transrespect.
      There were 369 recorded deaths this last year – plus many more nor reported, especially in countries were transgender is not recognized. This is a serious jump from the 270 in 2017.

      As usual the most murders were recorded in Brazil (167), Mexico (71), the United States (28), and Colombia (21). The situation in Brazil is likely to get much worse after the new president and self-declared homophobe, Jair Bolsonaro, takes over. Already Brazil has more murders of trans persons than all the rest of the world together.

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      Annette Dolan

      Annette Dolan had been told by doctors that “there was no ‘help’ for me, and I accepted this [as] gospel”.  After the news about Christine Jorgensen in 1953, she consulted with Harry Benjamin who suggested that she go abroad for castration, after which a US surgeon would be willing to complete the operation.

       However she could not afford such a trip. She decided to perform the operation herself. She read medical texts and bought the appropriate equipment.  "I learned to ligate, suture and anesthetize. I studied the surgical procedure step by step and memorized its sequence”.

      She presented her doctor with the successful result and in 1954 she went to the UCLA medical center for completion surgery with Elmer Belt. However she was disconcerted to see her confidential records left open on the business manager’s desk.

      Annette sent an account of her self-surgery to Harry Benjamin and it was later published in Sexology magazine, under a different pseudonym.

      In 1955 she participated in the Worden and Marsh project, and like other participants was angered by the way that they used her words to cast transsexuals in a negative light. She wrote to the Journal of the American Medical Association, Elmer Belt and Harry Benjamin as well as to Frederick Worden. “In general my words were twisted to suit their purpose.” She spoke of how she could sense the ridicule in their words.
      • Joanne Meyerowitz. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Harvard University Press, 2002: 145-6, 157, 162, 166.

      Tom Michaels

      At age 16, in the late 1940s, Michaels, then still living as a girl, discovered the lesbian scene, and was initially elated to find other similar people, but then realized that they were not so similar. Michaels lived as a man, but then went back to living as a woman for a while.

      As a man, Tom had difficulties being accepted, and for some years lived in a criminal subculture, the one place where he was accepted on his own terms.

      Eventually he moved elsewhere and did a bachelor’s degree in zoology. He again reverted to living as a woman, and did a year at a medical school. In the mid-1960s he contacted Robert Stoller at UCLA and was able to start taking testosterone.

      • Joanne Meyerowitz. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Harvard University Press, 2002: 143, 144, 195.

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      In 1954 Frederick G Worden, psychoanalyst, and James T Marsh, clinical psychologist, both at the University of Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, interviewed and tested five “physically normal men” (that is trans women): three of whom had already had transgender surgery, Annette Dolan, Caren Ecker and Janet Story; and two hoping for it, Carla Sawyer and Debbie Maine (all names pseudonyms).

      Annette had prepared herself for surgery in 1954 by doing an auto-orchiectomy, and had sent an account to Harry Benjamin which was later published in Sexology magazine (albeit under another name). Carla provided Worden and Marsh with a 6-page letter, but they never bothered to read it. Caren had had surgery in San Francisco in 1953, where, while recovering, she gave out offprints of Harry Benjamin’s "Transsexualism and transvestism as psychosomatic and somatopsychic syndromes". She volunteered for the project to show “the true idea that I’m happy with my new life, and that for suitable subjects it is right to make these changes”. Debbie Mayne, hoping for surgery, spent a year working with Worden, waiting for surgical approval which never came – at the end Worden plain refused to approve her. She later wrote that Worden “has never recommended anything for anybody . . . he doesn’t know too much to begin with.”

      At this same time, Elmer Belt, the urologist and surgeon who had been the first surgeon in the world to provide vaginoplasty for trans women as opposed to cis and intersex women, beyond a few experimental cases was persuaded to cease doing so --  Annette Dolan having been one of his last patients. A committee of doctors at UCLA, including Frederick Worden, had decided against the practice.

      Worden and Marsh published their paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association in April 1955. Their subjects, they wrote’ had “an extremely shallow, immature, and grossly distorted concept of what a woman is like socially, sexually, anatomically, and emotionally”. They depicted them as attention-seeking, and even held their co-operation with the study against them as a “need for recognition”. Worden and Marsh were irritated by the two subjects who wanted surgery, and criticized their refusal to acknowledge “the possibility that the wish for surgery might be symptomatic of a disorder within themselves”. They, of course, did not provide the desired recommendations for surgery.

      Harry Benjamin immediately wrote to the journal to object. Worden and Marsh had “badly misunderstood or misinterpreted” his work. Four of the five interviewees wrote to Benjamin expressing outrage. Annette also wrote to the Journal and Elmer Belt as well as to Frederick Worden. “In general my words were twisted to suit their purpose.” She spoke of how she could sense the ridicule in their words.


      Carla Sawyer had the misfortune to have a session with psychoanalyst Robert Stoller, then new to the field, who attempted to reverse her ‘sexual tendencies’ and antagonized her. Benjamin later helped her to obtain surgery in Mexico.

      Caren Ecker later became a nurse.

      Debbie Mayne later had surgery in Mexico with Dr Lopez Ferrer.

      • Frederick G Woden & James T Marsh. “Psychological Factors in Men Seeking Sex Transformation: A Preliminary Report”. Journal of the American Medical Association, 157, 15, April 9 1955: 1292-4, 1297-8.
      • Joanne Meyerowitz. How Sex Changed: A History of Trannsexuality in the United States. Harvard University Press, 2002: 107-9, 143, 146, 155-7, 166.


      A similar thing happened in 1970-2 when Harry Benjamin allowed Ethel Person and Lionel Ovesey to interview several of his trans patients.  Person and Ovesey applied a psycho-analytic interpretation.   They proposed a typology of trans persons assuming that a child's separation-individuation anxiety produced a fantasy of symbiotic fusion with the mother which the transsexual tries to resolve by surgically becoming her mother.  Papers to this effect were published 1973-85.  One trans woman who had been declared by Benjamin to be a type VI High Intensity, was rendered by Person and Ovesey as a secondary transsexual.  Again Benjamin was appalled by the printed study.  

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      Beverly-Barbara*, from the Los Angeles area, was definitely a transkid expressing girls’ interest and dressing as a girl from an early age. Her parents hoped that she would grow out of it.

      At age 15 she found work as a cocktail waitress, and saved up enough money to go and see Harry Benjamin. She claimed to be 18, although only 16, and Benjamin prescribed female hormones. Beverly-Barbara followed up with breast implants and electrolysis. Her voice had not changed much at puberty.

      She found a boy-friend and in early 1967 they were married in Reno. She was able to do presenting her drivers license only. Beverly-Barbara was by then working as a receptionist at a prominent restaurant, but still not able to afford completion surgery. Benjamin suggested that she get in touch with Richard Green who, after two years with Benjamin in New York and a year in London with John Randell, had returned to the University of California Los Angeles Gender Identity Research Clinic (UCLA GIRC).

      When Beverly-Barbara approached Green, he initially failed to understand why she was doing so.

      “On the phone I did not suspect that she was transsexual. In person I saw no clue either.’ (Green, 2019: 144)
      The GIRC had been active since 1962 but had not actually provided transgender surgery to any one, and Green thought that it was time to do so. Robert Stoller, the head of the GIRC was cautious about permitting such surgery, but was open to it being used as a research technique.
      “Patient selection was crucial. It should be limited to those males who had been very feminine in childhood, had never lived acceptably in a masculine role, and who had not derived pleasure from their penis. He termed these ‘true transsexuals’.” (Green, 2010:1459).
      Beverly-Barbara met these requirements. Green also endorsed John Money’s proposal that transsexual patients should undergo at least 12 months ‘real-life test’. Beverly-Barbara had in effect undergone 10 years real-life test.

      Green enquired about the likelihood of being charged with mayhem. The University of California legal counsel in Berkeley quickly replied that such was a possibility, but that the University would pay the legal bill.

      Green presented Beverly-Barbara to the GIRC at a Saturday morning conference in November 1968. Stoller gave a qualified approval. A second opinion was obtained from UCLA psychiatrist Larry Newman, and urologist Willard Goodwin (who had argued against the continuation of transgender surgery by Elmer Belt in 1954) agreed to do the operation.

      All went well, and Beverly-Barbara co-operated in follow-up interviews. Then she disappeared into private life.
      • Robert Stoller,. Sex and Gender: On the Development of Masculinity and Femininity, Science House,1968: 251..
      • Joanne Meyerowitz. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Harvard University Press, 2002: 214.
      • Richard Green. “Robert Stoller’s Sex and Gender: 40 Years on”. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 2010: 1459.
      • Richard Green. Gay Rights, Trans Rights: A psychiatrist/lawyer’s 50-year battle. 2018: chp 19.

      *Green 2010 calls her Barbara; Green 2018 calls her Beverly.  Meyerowitz does not give her a name.

      Beverly-Barbara will now be 75 years old.

      Other clinics refused to start the clock on the real-life test until after they had interviewed the patient – as Holly Woodlawn had found when she approached Johns Hopkins in 1966.

      Of course Beverly-Barbara is very similar to Agnes, who had been approved for surgery with Elmer Belt by Stoller 10 years earlier. There has been a lot of commentary about Agnes, but very little about Beverly-Barbara.

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      Gaffney was raised on a farm in a religious family, and was married at 17 to a boy of the same age. They rambled, hunted and fished together, which gave her experience of wearing trousers and other men’s clothing.

      After ten years of marriage they split. Gaffney then became Robert A Gaffney, moved to Spokane, Washington and found work as a photographer, a house painter and a janitor.

      In 1911 Gaffney met Margaret Hart, an abandoned wife with one child and another on the way. He offered to look after her until she was able to do so by herself. For the sake of appearances, they were married by a Justice of the Peace. It is not clear when and to what extent Margaret realized that Robert was not a regular man. He lost his temper when she brought up the issue.

      They moved to Seattle. He was employed as a janitor, and worked his way up to head janitor with 5 men and 10 women working for him. He earned $90 a month.

      Then Margaret became pregnant and gave birth again. Neighbors congratulated him on his third child, but he felt that Margaret had broken their agreement. He disappeared, cycling all the way to California.

      This left Mrs Gaffney and her three children destitute. The charity she turned to filed a charge under the 1913 “Lazy Husband” Act of Washington State.

      Robert worked for a while in California, but then, being unemployed, he returned to Seattle, where he was arrested for abandoning his wife, and sentenced to hard labor (for which his wife would be paid $1.50 a day), which he did not care to do. All he had to do was to proclaim himself a woman, and

      Newspaper cartoon implying
      Margaret did not previously
      know.  Skidmore p152.
      dress in women’s clothes. He did so and was quickly released.

      There was no law in Washington State nor in Seattle against cross-dressing. However his and Margaret’s marriage was declared void. The press went easy on both: Robert had stepped in to help a woman in distress; they accepted Margaret’s claim that she did not really know about Robert’s sex until the trial.

      Gaffney said the required things about being a real woman, and wouldn't dress as a man again, despite still walking and looking like a man in women’s clothes, and having forgotten how to to cook, and how to sew. The best janitorial job that could be obtained now paid only $30 a month.

      Gaffney left Seattle. A few months later, a reporter from the Seattle Star was invited to take an interview where he explained himself.  Gaffney pointed to his female dress: “It stands for all the follies of convention that makes men free and women slaves”.

      Then Gaffney disappeared again.
      • “Story of Woman ‘Father’ of Family”: ‘Mr.’ Gaffney Tells How ‘He’ Came to Woo, Win and Marry ‘Margaret’”. The Daily Capital Journal, Feb 19, 1916. Online.
      • “Find ‘Lazy Husband’ In Reality Is Woman”. Tacoma Times, Feb 19, 1916. Online.
      • “Woman is ‘Man’ for 18 years”. Rogue River Courier, Feb 20, 1916. Online.
      • “She Longs for the Mental, Economic Freedom of Pants”. Seattle Star, Sept 7, 1916. Online.
      • Emily Skidmore. True Sex: The Lives of Trans men at the turn of the 20th Century. New York University Press, 2017: 150-6.
      • Kerry Segrave. ‘Masquerading in Male Attire”: Women Passing as Men in America, 1844-1920. McFarland Publishing, 2018: 193-5.
      • “100 years ago in Seattle: After 4 years of marriage, wife discovers husband she married in Spokane was a woman”. The Spokesman, January 08, 2019. Online