Articles on this Page
- 06/25/15--05:30: _Robert Allen (1914 ...
- 06/29/15--05:22: _28 trans persons in...
- 07/02/15--05:45: _Viktor Kalnberz Вик...
- 07/05/15--06:14: _Dahlia McGowan (195...
- 07/08/15--04:42: _John Hathaway (1892...
- 07/11/15--07:52: _History of TAO: Pa...
- 07/13/15--06:27: _History of TAO: bib...
- 07/15/15--05:20: _History of TAO: Par...
- 07/17/15--06:31: _History of TAO: Par...
- 07/20/15--06:16: _Masha Bast, Маша Ба...
- 07/23/15--05:21: _Mark Angelo Cumming...
- 07/26/15--04:58: _Maritza/Mark Cummin...
- 07/29/15--06:50: _30 trans persons in...
- 08/01/15--05:09: _Bahram Mir-djalali ...
- 08/04/15--05:15: _Kokkorn Benjathikoo...
- 08/07/15--05:22: _Joe Carstairs/Tuffy...
- 08/09/15--08:00: _Joe Carstairs: bibl...
- 08/11/15--05:34: _Joe Carstairs (1900...
- 08/13/15--11:51: _Joe Carstairs (1900...
- 08/16/15--05:33: _Rachael Wallbank (1...
- 06/25/15--05:30: Robert Allen (1914 - ?) film maker, radiologist, teacher
- Robert Allen. But for the Grace: The True Story of a Dual Existence London: W.H. Allen 149 pp 1954.
- Gentleman Jack (Anne) Lister (1791 – 1848) landowner and colliery owner near Halifax, Yorkshire. De facto marriage to local heiress. Book
- Walter Sholto Douglas (1790 - 1830) writer, friend of Mary Shelley. GVWW Wikipedia
- James Barry (1795 – 1865) military surgeon in South Africa, Malta, Crimea, Canada. Outed at death. GVWW Wikipedia Book
- Micky Jacob (1884 – 1964) novelist. GVWW Book
- Victor Barker (1895 – 1960) fraudster, exhibited as freak in Blackpool. Book Wikipedia
- Bill Allen (1906 – 1949) mill worker, Bolton, Lancashire. Claimed gender operation in 1935. Convicted of murder of neighbour and hanged 1949. GVWW Book
- Norma Jackson (1906 - ?) arrested 1931 and sentenced to 18 months hard labour for ‘procuring another to commit a gross indecency’ by living with a man as his wife. GVWW Book
- Mark Weston (1906 - ?) female shot-put and javelin champion before transition. GVWW Wikipedia
- Michael Dillon (1915 – 1962) doctor, Buddhist monk, died in India. Book Wikipedia
- Judy Cousins (1917 -1993) soldier, sculpter, ran SHAFT. GVWW
- Roberta Kelly (1918 – 1993) postal worker, artist. GVWW
- Georgina Somerset (1923 – 2013) dentist, author of 1st book on transsexuality. GVWW LGBTHistory
- Carol Riddell (193? - ) sociologist, early gender theorist. GVWW
- April Ashley (1935 - ) performer, model, restaurateur. 1970 divorce removed female legal status from all UK trans women until Gender Recognition Act. Book Wikipedia Blog
- Terri Rogers (1937 – 1999) ventriloquist, designer of magic tricks. GVWW AllAboutMagicians
- Mark Rees (1942 - ) activist, councillor, Press for Change. GVWW LGBTHistory
- Alice Purnell (1943 - ) Beaumont Society, Gendys conferences. GVWW
- Vicky de Lambray (1950 – 1986) sex worker, involved with spies, murdered. GVWW Wikipedia
- Adèle Anderson (1952 - ) musician, actress. GVWW Wikipedia
- Caroline Cossey/Tula (1954 - ) model, appealed to European Court of Human Rights re legal right to be female. GVWW Wikipedia
- Christine Burns (1954 - ) computer consultant, Press for Change Wikipedia
- Phaedra Kelly (1955 - ) International Gender Transient Affinity. GVWW
- Stephen Whittle (1955 - ) Professor of Law at Manchester Metropolitan University. Press for Change. Wikipedia Blog
- Julia Grant (1957 - ) BBC documentary followed her transition, Manchester activist. Book TGZone
- Jane Fae (1957 - ) journalist. GVWW Blog
- Joanne Wingate (1960 - ) Sergeant Major. GVWW Wikipedia
- Kate Stone (1969 - ) scientist GVWW
- Kate Craig-Wood (1977 - ) entrepreneur, GIRES Wikipedia
- 07/02/15--05:45: Viktor Kalnberz Виктор Калнберз (1928 - ) trauma surgeon
- "Fingers from the dead". Time, 6/10/1966, 87,23: 55. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,942022,00.html.
- Hoag Levins. American Sex Machines: The Hidden History of Sex at the US Patent Office. Adams Media Corp, 1993: 132-2, 136.
- Anastasiya Gnedinskaya. "A Soviet doctor pioneered the first sex change operation". Russia Beyond the Headlines, January 20, 2014. http://rbth.com/society/2014/01/20/a_soviet_doctor_pioneered_the_first_sex_change_operation_33351.html.
- Nikita Noemi Rothenbächer. "Transsexualität in der UdSSR: die Geständnisse von bahnbrechenden Geschlechtsumwandlung". Trans-weib, 6 November 2014. http://trans-weib.blogspot.ca/2014/11/transsexualitat-in-der-udssr-die.html.
- 07/05/15--06:14: Dahlia McGowan (195?–) performer
- Bambi Lake with Alvin Orloff. The Unsinkable Bambi Lake: A Fairy Tale Containing the Dish on Cockettes, Punks, and Angels. San Francisco: Manic D Press, 1996: 48-9.
- 07/08/15--04:42: John Hathaway (1892–?) fraudster.
- "Girl posed as man 2 years and married". The New York Times, Dec 15, 1921. PDF
- Jonathan Ned Katz. Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary, Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. 1983, Carrol & Graf Publishers, Inc. 1994: 404.
- 07/11/15--07:52: History of TAO: Part 1: to 1971. USAF, music, GLF
- 07/13/15--06:27: History of TAO: bibliography
- Sleevenotes on Euphoria. A Gift From Euphoria (LP) with William D. Lincoln (bass, vocals), Hamilton Wesley Watt (vocals), Doug Delain (guitar), Dave Potter (drums). 1967
- Angela Douglas. "Panthers Still Biased Against Gays, Women". The Advocate, November 11-24, 1970.
- Donn Teal. The Gay Militants. Stein & Day, 1971: 210, 212.
- Angela Douglas (ed). Transsexual Action Organization Publications 1972-5.
- R. Fabricio. "Suit Charges Beach Harassment of Homosexuality". Miami Herald, 27 May 1973.
- Canary Conn. Canary: The Story of a Transsexual.Nash, 1974: 202
- Angela Douglas. "Gays March in S.F". Berkeley Barb, August 1977.
- Angela Douglas. Letter. Sister Aug-Sep 1977: 7.
- Janice G. Raymond. The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-male. Boston: Beacon Press. 1979: xvii.
- Angela Douglas. Triple Jeopardy: The Autobiography of Angela Lynn Douglas. Sneeds, Floria: Angela Lynn Douglas, 1983.
- Catherine Millot translated into English by Kenneth Hylton. Horsexe: Essay on Transsexuality. Paris: Point Hors Logne, 1983. NY:Autonomedia, 1990: .
- Angela Douglas. Hollywood's Obsession. Angela Lynn Douglas, 1992.
- Vernon Joynson. Fuzz, Acid And Flowers. "Euphoria". Borderline Productions, 1993.
- Art Kleps. A Narrative of the Early Years of American Psychedelianism. Neo-American Church of Texas, 1994. Kimberley Elliot and her husband appear under as Kim & Steve Newall.
- Pat Califia. Sex changes : the politics of transgenderism. San Francisco: Cleis Press 1997. Second edition by Patrick Califia 2003: 98-9.
- Kay Brown. "Angela Keyes Douglas". Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History. 1998. No Longer Available.
- Douglas Carl Czinki email to Kay Brown- no date - included on Brown's site.
- A.L. Douglas posting on Sympathy on Milli Vanilli, Jul 7, 2000.
- Rodger Stretmatter. Voices of Revolution: The Dissident Press in America. Colombia University Press, 2001: 250.
- James T. Sears. Rebels, Rubyfruit, and Rhinestones: Queering Space in the Stonewall South. Rutgers University Press, 2001: 129.
- Joanne Meyerowitz. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Harvard University Press. 2002: 236, 237-241, 257, 271, 333.
- Angela Lynn Douglas posting on dev.greenspun.com November 10, 2002.
- Last Drop Douglas. Cosmo Alley (CD) 2003.
- Angela Douglas 2 postings on "Transsexuals allowed in Olympics" Amorous Propensities May 21, 2004 and October 21, 2004.
- A.L. posting on band family tree.com 5/28/2005.
- Angela Douglas (Tanglehead) posting on Messageboard for Love Fans 16/11/2005.
- Angela Douglas posting on Arthur Lee Tribute June 27, 2006.
- Angela Douglas (Tanglehead) posting on Yellow Swordfish>>Arthur Lee and Love 2006-08-26.
- Angela Douglas posting on the Cindi Lauper web page. 14 March 2007.
- Angela Douglas (Tanglehead) posting on ufowatch no date.
- Mark Hinson. "Angela's ashes: Farewell to a wild pen pal". Tallahassee Democrat, August 24, 2007. Reproduced.
- Stephen Whittle in Richard Ekins & Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon. London: Thousand Oaks; California: Sage. 2006: 192-3.
- Susan Stryker & Stephen Whittle. The Transgender Studies Reader. Routledge, 2006: 6.
- Susan Stryker. Transgender History. Seal Press, 2008: 88-9
- Suzan Cooke."Early Frauds, Predators and Self-Agrandizers". Women Born Transsexual, 05/27/2009. http://womenborntranssexual.com/2009/05/27/early-frauds-predators-and-self-agrandizers.
- Susana Pena. "Gender and Sexuality in Latina/o Miami: Documenting Latina Transsexual Activists". Kevin P. Murphy & Jennifer M. Spear (eds). Historicising Gender and Sexuality. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011: 755-772.
- Tom De Simone, Teresa Wang, Melissa Lopez, Diem Tran, Andy Sacher, Kersu Dalal, Justin Emerick. Lavender Los Angeles. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Pub, 2011: 118.
- Philip Zonkel. "Gay History: Los Angeles’ pioneering transgender activists to be discussed Sunday at ONE Gay & Lesbian Archives". Out in the 562, April 11, 2014. http://blogs.presstelegram.com/outinthe562/2014/04/11/gay-history-los-angeles-pioneering-transgender-activists-to-be-discussed-sunday-at-one-gay-lesbian-archives.
- Brendan Zachariah O'Donnell. Definition and Redefinition: Alliance and Antagonism in Homosexual and Trans Communities in the U.S. BA thesis, Wesleyan University, 2014: 61-2, 69. PDF
- 07/15/15--05:20: History of TAO: Part 2: 1972-80. TAO in Miami Beach
- 07/17/15--06:31: History of TAO: Part 3: aftermath
- 07/20/15--06:16: Masha Bast, Маша Баст (198?–) lawyer, activist
- "Moscow Lawyer Faces Disciplinary Proceedings for Activism". The Other Russia, November 4th, 2009. www.theotherrussia.org/2009/11/04/moscow-lawyer-faces-disciplinary-proceedings-for-activism.
- "Beeline Blocks Access to Opposition Websites". The Other Russia, February 8th, 2010. www.theotherrussia.org/2010/02/08/beeline-blocks-access-to-opposition-websites.
- "Poisoned Lawyer Kicked out of Moscow Hospital". The Other Russia, February 24th, 2010. www.theotherrussia.org/2010/02/24/poisoned-lawyer-kicked-out-of-moscow-hospital.
- "Lawyer Evgeny Arkhipov received the threats and the requirement from FSB of Russia to leave the country". Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights, 25.08.13. http://eng.rusadvocat.com/node/143.
- "Transgender Roman Sorokin has asked for the political asylum in France". Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights, 26.08.13. http://eng.rusadvocat.com/node/144.
- "Top Russian human rights lawyer comes out as transgender". Planettransgender, September 7, 2013. http://planetransgender.blogspot.com/2013/09/top-russian-human-rights-lawyer-comes.html.
- Ian Bateson. "Transgender Lawyer Comes Out in Protest". The Moscow Times, Sep 13 2013. www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/qa-transgender-lawyer-comes-out-in-protest/486021.html.
- Sunnivie Brydum. "Russian Lawyer Comes Out as Trans In Protest of Anti-LGBT Laws". Advocate, September 16 2013. www.advocate.com/politics/transgender/2013/09/16/watch-russian-lawyer-comes-out-trans-protest-anti-lgbt-laws.
- Brody Levesque. "Transgender human rights lawyer announces bid for Russian president". LGBTNation, September 24, 2013. www.lgbtqnation.com/2013/09/transgender-human-rights-lawyer-announces-candidacy-russian-president.
- Gregory Feifer. Russians: The People Behind the Power. Twelve, 2014: 161-2.
- Anna Arutunyan. The Putin Mystique: Inside Russia's Power Cult. Skyscraper Publications, 2014: 114.
- Yana Sitnikova. "Transgender activism in Russia". TTV-I, September 4, 2014. www.ttv-i.net/?p=1425.
- 07/26/15--04:58: Maritza/Mark Cummings (1964–) Part II: serial monogamy and dissent
- Julia Reischel. "See Tom be Jane". The Village Voice, May 30, 2006. www.villagevoice.com/news/see-tom-be-jane-6427828.
- Mark Angelo Cummings. The Mirror Makes No Sense. 79pp AuthorHouse, 2006.
- Herb Sosa. "Mark's Transition". Ambiante, May 2006. www.ambiente.us/506MarksTransition.html.
- Mark Angelo Cummings. "Mark's Story". TSsuccesses, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20150322222057/http://ai.eecs.umich.edu/people/conway/TSsuccesses/FtM/Mark's Story.html.
- Letter in response to Debbie Schlussel. "Raising RuPaul: Parents Who Should be SUED for Malpractice". www.debbieschlussel.com/2071/raising-rupaul-parents-who-should-be-sued-for-malpractice.
- Carla A. Pfeffer "Bodies in Relation—Bodies in Transition: Lesbian Partners of Trans Men and Body Image". Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12:4, 325-345, 2008. PDF
- "Married twice as a woman, once as a man! Real life story!". 5Perc Angol, 09.Dec 29. www.5percangol.hu/reference/married_twice_as_a_woman_once_as_a_man_real_life_story.
- Father Tony. "Mark Angelo Cummings - Songs in the Key of F2M". Bilerico, April 06, 2010. www.bilerico.com/2010/04/mark_angelo_cummings_-_songs_in_the_key_of_f2m.php.
- Bob Fredericks. "Lovebirds to marry after both changed genders". New York Post, November 26, 2013. http://nypost.com/2013/11/26/lovebirds-to-get-hitched-after-both-changed-genders.
- Matt Blake. "'Our relationship is the kind that people dream of': Love-at-first-sight couple get engaged... after both undergoing sex change operations". Daily Mail, 26 November 2013. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2513765/Florida-couple-engaged-undergoing-sex-change-operations.html.
- Mark Angelo Cummings. The Healthy Travelers Guide No More Excuses. Lulu, 2013.
- Jaye Johnson chats with Mark Angelo Cummings. "Trans* Man on a Mission". LGBTQIA, Apr 14, 2014. https://medium.com/lgbtqia-im-ru/trans-man-on-a-mission-62ce9b0519d3.
- Kelli Busey. "GLAADS Trans100 the slickest trans assimilation scheme ever, or just a great thing?"Planet Transgender, May 7, 2014. http://planettransgender.com/glaads-trans100-the-slickest-trans-assimilation-scheme-ever-or-just-a-great-thing.
- "Cathy Brennan interviewed on radical feminism and 'transphobia'". Deep Green Resistance, September 24, 2014. http://deepgreenresistance.blogspot.ca/2014/09/cathy-brennan-radical-feminism-transphobia.html.
- Mark Angelo Cummings. "Transitioning Is for Those Who Can Vote and Drink". New York Times, June 18, 2015. www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/06/18/is-there-a-right-age-to-change-ones-sex/transitioning-is-for-those-who-can-vote-and-drink.
- Dirt. "Some questions for Transition Radio's Maritza (Mark) Cummings". The Dirt from Dirt, June 23, 2015. http://dirtywhiteboi67.blogspot.ca/2015/06/some-questions-for-transition-radios.html.
- Dawn Ennis. "'Ex-Trans' Activists Exposed: The Big Name Behind Their Fight Against Gender Transition". Advocate, July 17 2015. http://www.advocate.com/transgender/2015/07/17/ex-trans-activists-exposed-big-name-behind-their-fight-against-gender-transit?page=0,0.
- The issue of the increase in numbers of trans persons over the last 50 years as due to the toxic chemicals in the environment has the virtue of being the only theory that explins the increase in numbers. The classic account is by Christine Johnson, 2004. PDF. It is summarized in Deborah Rudacille's The Riddle of Gender, 2006, Chp 7.
- the increasing practice of adulating trans persons when they step out of the closet or from stealth and shunting aside the activists who have been working for years or decades. Cummings was rather careless in naming only black celebrities. He should have paid more attention to what happened to Peter Tatchell. There is no shortage of white celebrities who could have been mentioned: Bono, Beck, Maloney, Jenner.
- Franciszek Neugebauer (1856 – 1914) Polish author of seminal Hermaphroditismus beim Menschen. 1908, which is still untranslated. GVWW PL.Wikipedia
- Ludwig L. Lenz (1889 – 1966) from Poznań, Poland, major surgeon at Hirschfeld's institute. GVWW DE.Wikipedia
- Eugene de Savitsch (1902 - ?) St Petersburg-born author of Homosexuality, Transvestism and Change of Sex, 1938. GVWW
- Georges Zavitzianos (1909 – 1995) Greek psychoanalyst in Canada and then US, proposer of concept of homeovestism. GVWW
- Kurt Freund (1914 – 1996) Czechoslavak penile plethysmographer who emigrated to Toronto, and invented the binary made famous by Ray Blanchard. GVWW EN.Wikipedia
- Aron Belkin (1928 - 2003) Soviet endocrinologist and psychoanalyst, who pioneered gender changes in the 1960s. Obituary
- Viktor Kalnberz (1928 - ) Latvian surgeon, 1st ftm operation in USSR. GVWW
- Sava Perovic (1937 - 2010), Serbian sex change surgeon. YouTube
- Jerzy Kosinski (1933 – 1991) Polish novelist who wrote in English. Several trans characters. Discussion.
- Sanda Davis (1955 - ) Romanian now resident in Ontario, author of Am I a Man or a Woman? where "introjections", alternate identities, become the dominant personality. GVWW
- Corded Ware culture grave, 4500+BP apparently of trans woman. Newsarticle.
- Yelizaveta Petrovna Romanova (1709 – 1762) Empress of all the Russias from 1741, demanded drag balls at court so that she could transvest. GVWW
- Vasil Popovici (1815 – 1905) monk in the Orthodox Monastery at Țibucani in north east Romania. GVWW
- Felicitas Von Vestvali (1824 – 1890) from Szcsecin, Poland, actor of male roles in opera and theatre. GVWW
- Emil Vacano/Signora Sangumeta (1840 – 1982) Czech woman school-rider and a circus rider. Male novelist. GVWW
- Sandor Vay (1859 - 1918) Hungarian aristocrat and novelist. GVWW HU.Wikipedia
- Mikas Karadzic (1862 – 1934) Montenegrin farmer, soldier. GVWW
- Michael Semeniuk (18?? - 1909) head waiter in Czernowitz, Austria-Hungary (now Chernowitz in Ukraine). GVWW
- Zaitzev (189? - ?) noted beauty, who frequented gay balls and private parties in Moscow and then Petrograd in the early years after the Revolution. GVWW
- Aleksandr Pavlovich (189? - ?) market trader in Astrakhan. GVWW
- Evgenii Fedorovich (1898 - ?) Soviet Agent. GVWW
- K (189? - ?) Kazan, Tartarstan, registered as female 1937 and removed from the military recruitment rolls. GVWW
- Tonë Bikaj (1901 – 1971) fought with Albanian partisans in WWII, later imprisoned and upset at being treated as a woman. Emigrated to Montenegro. GVWW
- Anton Prinner (1902 - 1983) Hungarian artist in France. GVWW
- Shura/Aleksandr Mikhailovich (1905 - ?) White Russian refugee in Beijing in 1930s, where her body masculinised (possibly Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) GVWW
- Zdenek Koubkov (1913 - ?) Czechoslovak athlete in 1934 Women's World Games, became a man the next year. GVWW
- Fetah Ejupi (1926 - ?) from 1944 in Yugoslav People's Liberation Army for 2 years before outed by a doctor. Then on village council. GVWW
- Jurgis Mačiūnas/George Maciunas (1931 – 1978) from Kaunas, Lithuania, moved to New York where co-founded the Fluxus art movement. EN.Wikipedia
- Holly Ahlberg (1934 - ) Photographer and artist from Latvia. GVWW
- Inna (1938 - ) Latvian engineer, 1st ftm surgery in USSR 1972 GVWW
- Desiré Dubounet (1951 - ) US fugitive in Budapest, LGBT activist, performer. GVWW
- Paola Revenioti (1959 - ) Greek photographer, poet, activist. GVWW
- Terzea Spencerova (195? - ) Czech author of Jsem trand'akNewsArticle
- Anna Grodzka (1954 - ) Palikot Member of Polish Parliament from 2011. GVWW PL.WIKIPEDIA Homopedia
- L (1978 - ) Lithuanian who went to the European Court of Human Rights in 2006, where he won a ruling that Lithuania should recognise his gender. Lithuania chose to pay him €45,000 and not do so. GVWW
- Helena (1972 - ) Serbian ex-army Major in transition. NewsArticle
- Rafalala (1982 - ) Polish artist, activist. GVWW Homopedia
- Masha Bast (198? - ) chair for the Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights. GVWW
- Roman Sorokin (198? - ) Russian trans man, political refugee in France. GVWW
- Andrej Pejic (1991 - ) Bosnian-Australian model. EN.Wikipedia
- 08/01/15--05:09: Bahram Mir-djalali (1939 – ) surgeon.
- Nazila Fathi. “As Repression Lifts, More Iranians Change Their Sex”. The New York Times. Aug 2, 2004. www.nytimes.com/2004/08/02/international/middleeast/02iran.html?hp=&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1091489991-2sBf34Gerj3nlXAaASXZcQ.
- Robert Tait. “A Fatwa for Freedom”. The Guardian. 27 July 2005. www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jul/27/gayrights.iran.
- Tanaz Eshaghian (dir). Be Like Others. Iran, Canada, UK, US 74 mins 2008.
- Fritz Schaap. "Iran's Tragic Approach to Sex Change". Ozy, Apr 13 2015. http://www.ozy.com/fast-forward/irans-tragic-approach-to-sex-change/40153.
- 08/04/15--05:15: Kokkorn Benjathikoon โกโก้ กกกร เบญจาธิกูล (1969 - ) model, actress.
- “Gokgorn Benjathikul”. Lorna’s Midsummer Night’s Dream. http://tgmedia.enacre.net/lorna_lynne/benja.html.No Longer Available
- โกโก้ กกกร เบญจาธิกูล. ฉันได้แต่งงานแล้วค่ะ(Finally I got married). 2551(2009)
- 08/07/15--05:22: Joe Carstairs/Tuffy de Pret (1900 – 1993): Part I: youth and war
- 08/09/15--08:00: Joe Carstairs: bibliography
- she describes Beatrice Lillie as a celebrated male impersonator. Lillie was a performer, and did some drag, but it was only a minor part of her repertoire.
- she identifies the Bahamas as British West Indies, but it is only part;
- she gives prices in the Bahamas in the 1930s in dollars but it used the pound until 1966.
- refers to the author of the novel Saturday Island, Hugh Brooke, as Tim Brooke. Google this title and author name and you find only Summerscale’s book.
- Serge Voronoff & Evelyn Bostwick. Accélération intensive du bourgeonnement des plaies par la pulpe testiculaire: Étude expérimentale faite a la station physiologique du Collège de France. Paris: A. Maloine et fils, 1919.
- Serge Voronoff,, Evelyn Bostwick Voronoff, Édouard Retterer & Adolph Elwyn. Life; A Study of the Means of Restoring Vital Energy and Proloning Life. New York: E. P. Dutton & company, 1920.
- "BRITISH RECORD CONFIRMED; Miss Carstairs Granted Mark of 39.7 Knots for 1 1/2 Litre Boats". New York Times, December 29, 1926.
- "DETROIT REGATTA DRAWS EUROPEANS; France, England, Germany and Canada Will Send Speed Boats to Sept. 3-6 Races. MISS CARSTAIRS TO DRIVE Noted British Woman Pilot Will Handle Newg in 1 1/2-Litre Class -- News of Other Water Races". New York Times, July 10, 1927.
- "SEA SPEED BOAT TEST SOON; Craft of Miss Carstairs for 90-Hour Atlantic Crossing Almost Ready". New York Times, February 28, 1928.
- "OCEAN MOTOR BOAT BUILT.; Miss Carstairs Will Soon Test Craft for 60-Hour Crossing". New York Times, April 18, 1928.
- "New British Boats Fastest in World: Miss Betty Carstairs Determined to Recapture Harmsworth Cup". The Globe, Jun 1 1928.
- "MISS CARSTAIRS OUT, CUP RACE IN DOUBT; British Entry Withdraws From Harmsworth Trophy Speed Boat Test at Detroit. CHALLENGE CRAFT UNFIT "Will Not Uphold Prestige of Great Britain," Says Miss Carstairs --May Cancel Event". New York Times, July 22, 1928.
- "MISS CARSTAIRS SAILS FOR AMERICA AUG 18; Announces Final Decision to Race Speedboat in International Races of Detroit". New York Times, August 11, 1928.
- "BRITISH GIRL DRIVER ARRIVES FOR RACES; Miss Carstairs and Speedboat Ready for International Series at Detroit". New York Times, August 25, 1928.
- "SAY ESTELLE IV CAN DO 105 MILES AN HOUR; British Hope Triple Screwed Speedboat Will Give Record to Miss Carstairs". New York Times, July 19, 1929.
- "AGAIN BOOK ENTRY OF MISS CARSTAIRS; Detroit Officials Reinstate Challenger From England forHarmsworth Boat Trophy". New York Times, July 29, 1928.
- "Miss Carstairs Out of Boat Race". New York Times, August 01, 1928.
- "U.S.-BRITISH BOATS TO RACE AT DETROIT; Miss Carstairs, Challenger for Harmsworth Trophy, Decides Not to Withdraw. EAST CHESTER CLUB FORMED First Series of Outboard Races to Be Run Today--Greenwood Lake Regatta Also Takes Place Today". New York Times, August 05, 1928.
- "Miss Carstairs on Way Here; Bringing Speed Boat for Race". New York Times, August 19, 1928.
- "U.S.- BRITISH CRAFT TO RACE SATURDAY; Miss Carstairs and Her Speed Boat Ready for Harmsworth Trophy Series. U.S. BEATEN ONLY TWICE Successful Seven Times In International Event--America FirstChallenged In 1907. Challenger 21 Feet Long. Second Heat Sept". New York Times, August 26, 1928.
- "Miss Carstairs in Detroit For Speedboat Title Race". New York Times, August 28, 1928.
- "U.S. SPEEDBOAT TESTS GET UNDER WAY TODAY; Team to Be Picked to Race Miss Carstairs, British Challenger-- Gar Wood May Not Compete. Gar Wood May Not Race". New York Times, Aug 29, 1928.
- "CARSTAIRS CRAFT SINKS DURING RACE; English Girl Saved in First Test for Harmsworth Trophy, Won by Miss America VII. HER MCHANIC BADLY HURT 150,000 See Mishap, Which Occurs When British Speedboat Is Leading at Detroit. Bosts Off to Flying Start. Wood's". New York Times, September 02, 1928.
- "GREENING CAPTURES MOTOR BOAT TITLE; Canadian Takes North American Championship, Winning2d Straight Heat.MISS CARSTAIRS INJURED: Found to Have Suffered Two Fractured Ribs--Her Sunken Craft Is Located in Detroit River". New York Times, September 03, 1928.
- "GAR WOOD RETAINS SPEEDBOAT TROPHY; Takes 2d Heat of Harmsworth Classic--Miss Los Angeles Is Capsized. MISS CARSTAIRS TO RETURN British Girl, Eliminated When Boat Sank in First Heat, Challenges Again. Yachting Body Gets Challenge. Miss Los Angeles Upsets". New York Times, September 04, 1928.
- "$100,000 SPEED BOAT FOR MISS CARSTAIRS; Englishwoman Plans to Challenge Again for Harmsworth International Trophy.SECRETLY BUILDING RACERCraft to Have 3,000 Horsepower andDevelop 140-Mile-an-HourMaximum Speed". New York Times, April 05, 1929.
- "'FASTEST' BOAT OFF FOR AMERICA TODAY; Miss Carstair's Estelle IV, Built Secretly at Cowes, to Be Shipped on Arabic. HAS THREE NAPIER ENGINES 105 Miles an Hour Expected of Craft Which Will Race at Detroit Next Month. Five Feet of Driving Room. Weight of Boat Five Tons". New York Times, July 20, 1929.
- "'FASTEST' MOTORBOAT LAUNCHED AT COWES; Will Be Driven by Miss Carstairs in Harmsworth Trophy and Other U.S. Races". New York Times, July 17, 1929.
- "Miss Carstairs's Speedboat Reaches Canada From England". New York Times, July 30, 1929.
- "Boat Which Miss Carstairs Will Race in U.S. Has 3,400-Pound Hull, 3 Engines of 1,000 H.P.". New York Times, August 01, 1929.
- "MISS CARSTAIRS HERE TO RACE SPEED BOAT; British Motor Pilot Will Oppose Gar Wood Craft at Detroit on Labor Day". New York Times, August 02, 1929.
- "on Shrewsbury River, Aug. 24 and 25, Attract Some Noted Speed Boats. SECRECY VEILS ESTELLE IV Reputed to Have Cost Miss Carstairs $100,000 to Build--NewRules for President's Cup". New York Times, August 11, 1929.
- "Fourth Speed Boat Is Entered For Harmsworth Trophy Event". New York Times, August 26, 1929.
- "ESTELLE IV AT RACE SCENE.; British Speedboat Is Lowered Into the Detroit River". New York Times, August 27, 1929.
- "One of Motors of Estelle IV Removed; Boat Overpowered". New York Times, August 28, 1929.
- "MISS CARSTAIRS TESTS SPEEDBOAT; Makes Fast Run in Estelle IV and Expresses Delight at Its Speed". New York Times, August 29, 1929.
- "ENGLISH SPEEDBOAT DAMAGED IN TRIAL; Miss Carstairs's Estelle IV Has Shaft Torn Loose Speeding 60 Miles an Hour. TO REPAIR BOAT AT ONCE Snoddy, Stricken With Typhoid Fever, Forced to Withdraw From the Race". New York Times, August 30, 1929.
- "HARMSWORTH RACE AT DETROIT TODAY; Four Speed Boats to Engage in First Test of Classic Before Crowd of 150,000. DECIDING RACE ON MONDAY Estelle IV, British Boat, Is Ready After Accident--New World's Record Is Expected. Has Shown Its Speed. How Craft are Painted All Boats Go Well". New York Times, August 31, 1929.
- "CRAFT DISABLED Miss Carstairs Leaves Course and Is Disqualified From the Harmsworth Trophy Series. MISS LOS ANGELES IS OUT Motors Fall and She Is Ordered Off --Victor Sets Mark and Wins by 12 Inches. Out of the Series. Miss Carstairs Out First. Race Starts". New York Times, September 01, 1929.
- "Six Foreign Boats Will Seek Harmsworth Trophy Next Year". New York Times, September 03, 1929.
- "MISS AMERICA VIII WINS AND SETS MARK; Gar Wood's Speedboat Takes Final Harmsworth Trophy Heat on Detroit River. AVERAGE SPEED IS 75.287 Miss America VII Second, Estelle IV Third, Los AngelesLast Over 30 Miles. 500,000 AT THE REGATTA See Wood's Two Boats Leave Britishand Coast Entry Far Behind in Classic Event. Has Twin Packard Motors. Conditions Were Ideal.". New York Times, September 03, 1929.
- "Entry in Harmsworth Trophy Event. 5 BOATS EXPECTED IN RACE Prince Ruspoli of Italy and Miss Carstairs Will Also Challenge Gar Wood Craft Here. Miss Carstairs to Build Boat. Marquis to Accompany Prince". New York Times, November 27, 1929.
- "Speed-Boat Record Is Aim of Miss Carstairs, Who is Working on Design of New Craft". New York Times, December 10, 1929.
- "DEATH TO BRANCH OF TREE; Experts Reveal Waterlogged Limb Was Picked Up on Speedboat's Path. SPEED 119.6 MILES AN HOUR Betty Carstairs, Undaunted by the Disaster, Sails to Race for England at Detroit Girl Racer Is Undaunted". New York Times, June 15, 1930.
- "Miss Carstairs, Here for Speed Boat Races, Says It Will Be Her Last Harmsworth Effort". New York Times, June 22, 1930.
- "Players of the Game; Miss Marion B. Carstairs--Speed Boat Racer Is Building Three-Master. Drove Ambulance in War. Lived in New York City. Harmsworth Trophy Her Aim. Will Drive Estelle IV. Enjoys Being a Sailor". New York Times, June 23, 1930.
- "Contest to Get Under Way at 1 P.M. From Colonial Club. LOYNES GOLD CUP ENTRANT Has Entered Speed Boat Californian --Miss Carstairs to Begin Tests Next Week. Keen Battle for Gold Cup. To Have Two Napier Motors". New York Times, June 29,1930.
- "Miss Carstairs Drives Boat 70 Miles an Hour in Cup Test". New York Times, July 05, 1930.
- "Miss Carstairs's Craft Goes 80 Miles an Hour in Test". New York Times, July 12, 1930.
- "Miss Carstairs Drives Boat At 90 Miles an Hour in Canada". New York Times, July 15, 1930.
- "90 AN HOUR SPEED BY MISS CARSTAIRS; British Hope for Harmsworth Trophy Races Sends Estelle IV Through Trial. MANY BOATS LINE COURSE Pleasure Craft on Lake at Gravenhurst Handicap Test--Performance Considered Satisfactory". New York Times, July 17, 1930.
- "Miss Carstairs to Seek Record; Hopes to Go 100 Miles an Hour". New York Times, August 03, 1930.
- "Miss Carstairs Speeds 94.5 An Hour With the Estelle V". New York Times, August 14, 1930.
- "HARMS WORTH RACE STARTS SATURDAY; Wood to Defend Famous Trophy Against Miss Carstairs, English Challenger. GREAT CROWD IS EXPECTED Each Entrant Will Have Two Speed Boats--Regatta Off Detroit to Continue Through Sept. 2. Wood Taking No Chances. Drivers". New York Times, August 24, 1930.
- "HARMSWORTH RACE AT DETROIT TODAY; Gar Wood's 3 Miss Americas to Start Defense of Trophy Against Miss Carstairs. EXPECT 90 AN HOUR SPEED British Challenger to Drive the Estelle IV--Also Represented by the Estelle V". New York Times, August 30, 1930.
- "WOOD WINS 1ST HEAT IN SPEED BOAT RACE; Finishes 2 Miles in Front of Miss Carstairs in Harmsworth Trophy Event. GEORGE WOOD IS SECOND English Girl, Driving Estelle IV, Trails, but Keeps On--200,000 Witness Contest.ESTELLE V IS FORCED OUT Victor at Wheel". New York Times, August 31, 1930.
- "HARMS WORTH RACE CONTINUES TODAY; Miss Carstairs, With One Boat Left, Has Almost Impossible Task Against Wood. TWO RACERS IN MISHAPS Phantom Overturns and Miss Britain 1 Has Engine Trouble in Event for 5 -Liter Craft. Hawker Passed Gar Wood. Patrol Boat". New York Times, September 01, 1930.
- "BOAT FORCED OUT Hawker at the Wheel in Place of Miss Carstairs, Who Sees Race From Stands. GEORGE WOOD IS SECOND Phil, Third Brother of Famous Family, Finishes Third, Two Miles Behind. Miss Carstairs a Spectator. Wood Soon Draws Away. Scott-Payne's Craft". New York Times, September 02, 1930.
- "DON WILL COMPETE IN ITALIAN REGATTA; Miss Carstairs Also to Drive in Cup Test in May--Wood Decides Not to Enter". New York Times, April 12, 1931.
- "Miss Carstairs Just Escapes Serious Injury as Boat Sinks". New York Times, July 24, 1931.
- "Miss Carstairs Arrives". New York Times, August 22, 1931.
- "Betty Carstairs Buys Isle, To Flee From British Taxes". New York Times, Sept 28, 1934.
- "Miss Carstairs, Here, Silent on Buying Isle; But British Racer Admits She is Retiring and Going to Whale Cay in the Bahanas". New York Times, October 06, 1934.
- "Betty Carstairs Gets Aid to Yacht; Radio Station on the Former Speedboat Racer's Bahamian Isle Intercepts S O S". New York Times, December 09, 1937.
- Molly Coleclough. Women's Legion, 1916-1920, etc. With plates, including portraits. Spearman, 1940.
- "Betty Carstairs' Island: Racing Queen Rules her Private Bahama". Life, 17 Feb 1941: 66-71. Online.
- "Raps Whale Cay legend: Bahamian Says Betty Carstairs' Rule Exaggerated". The Montreal Gazette, Sep 5, 1941: 9. Online.
- "Chicago Sailor's Saga Of 32 Days On A Life Raft". Chicago Tribune, August 15, 1942. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1942/08/15/page/9/article/chicago-sailors-saga-of-32-days-on-a-life-raft.
- "Speedboat Star Operates War-Essential Cargo Fleet". The Globe and Mail, May 22, 1944.
- Erich Maria Remarque. Arch of Triumph. Appleton-Century, 1945.
- "Miss Carstairs Files First Papers". New York Times, October 21, 1945.
- "The Love Lives of Marlene Dietrich". Confidential Magazine, 3,3, July 1955: 21-5. www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Marlene_Dietrich_Lesbian_pdf.
- Peter Heaton. Yachting: A Pictorial History. Viking Press, 1973: 92.
- Barbara Grier & Coletta Reid. Lesbian Lives: Biographies of Women from the Ladder. Diana Press, 1976: 104-5.
- Maria Riva,. Marlene Dietrich. Ballantine Books, 1994: 485.
Kate Summerscale. The Queen of Whale Cay. London: Fourth Estate 248 pp 1997.
- Diana McLellan. The Girls: Sappho Goes to Hollywood. LA Weekly Books, 2000: 233, 245-6, 253, 256, 290, 355.
- Joan Schenkar. Truly Wilde: The Unsettling Story of Dolly Wilde, Oscar's Unusual Niece. Basic Books, 2000: 86-8, 129, 237, 296, 410.
- Terry Castle. "If Everybody had a Wadley" in Boss Ladies, Watch Out!: Essays on Women, Sex and Writing. Routledge, 2002: 215-224.
- James P Barry. American Powerboats: The Great Lakes' Golden Years 1882-1984. Motorbooks, 2003: 31, 33, 34, 36.
- Kevin Desmond. Race Against the Odds: The Tragic Success Story of "Miss England II". Sigma Leisure, 2004: 17, 41, 89, 96.
- John Harding. "Shingled Girl Beats German" in Sailing's Strangest Moments: Extraordinary But True Stories From Over Nine Hundred Years of Sailing. Anova Books, 2004:
- Bruce Cumings. Dominion from Sea to Sea: Pacific Ascendancy and American Power. Yale University Press, 2010: 498.
- Kathryn Livingston. Lilly: Palm Beach, Tropical Glamour, and the Birth of a Fashion Legend. Wiley, 2012: 43-4,47. About Joe's cousin, Lilly Pulitzer.
- Roy Calley. The World Water Speed Record: The Fast and the Forgotten. Amberley, 2014:
- "Duke of York Trophy". Fast On Water. www.fastonwater.co.uk/duke-of-york-trophy.html.
- 08/11/15--05:34: Joe Carstairs (1900 – 1993): Part II: powerboat racer
- 08/13/15--11:51: Joe Carstairs (1900 – 1993): Part III: Lord of the island
- 08/16/15--05:33: Rachael Wallbank (1956 - ) family lawyer
- "Family Court Endorses Transsexual Marriage: The Marriage between a Man of Transsexual Background and his Wife is declared Valid by the Family Court of Australia". Polare magazine, December 2001. www.gendercentre.org.au/resources/polare-archive/archived-articles/family-court-endorses-transsexual-marriage.htm.
"Marriage Matters".Australian Story. Producer: Rebecca Latham, with Rachael Wallbank. Australia 28 mins 31/3/2003 ABC TV. Transcript.
- Rachael Wallbank. "Legal Environment following re: Kevin: New Perceptions & Strategies". N.S.W. State Parliament House, 25th February 2003. Online at: www.gendercentre.org.au/resources/polare-archive/archived-articles/the-legal-environment-following-re-kevin.htm.
- Rachael Wallbank. "Re Kevin in Perspective". Deakin Law Review, 22, 9(2), 2004. www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/DeakinLawRw/2004/22.html.
- "He said, she said". The Age, March 6, 2006. www.theage.com.au/news/film/he-said-she-said/2006/03/05/1141493543364.html?page=fullpage.
Joyce Allen from Warrington, Lancashire was a masculine tomboy who frequently scrapped with both boys and girls. She resisted having to wear girls' clothes, and took pleasure in dressing in her father's trousers. She pilfered dad's cigarettes, and when he bought a car, she, although under age, borrowed it and drove around the streets.
She had learned the violin, but at her first public performance, of Luigi Arditi's Il Bacio, a string snapped, and it was many years before Allen picked up the violin again.
She left school at fourteen, and worked at a variety of jobs, but also became well known at the local labour exchange where she befriended one of the clerks. The most satisfying job was at a local cinema.
In 1933, Joyce had met a man with whom she enjoyed going to horse races and greyhound tracks. They married, but quickly realized that 'a normal marital relationship' was impossible. Bored and incompetent as a housewife, Joyce took up gambling and lost everything, even the furniture.
Afterwards, now usually wearing slacks and with a man's haircut Allen worked in the exhibition side of the entertainment industry. She continued to suffer from stares and comments while trying to pass as a girl/woman.
"The sadistic delight of strangers in making mocking remarks about my appearance perhaps called forth a sadistic response from me. I actually had visiting cards printed, bearing a false name and address, and when people were offensive to me in public, I would hand them a card with the remark: 'If there are any further details you would like to know, perhaps you would write to me.'"With the start of war in September 1939, Allen immediately enlisted. She was assigned as a driver to First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY), and after six months was made a sergeant. In December 1941 Allen was having difficulties in avoiding a woman's sexual advances, when her mother fell ill and she was given a compassionate release.
After some weeks of caring for her mother, Allen applied for work and found a job at the Ministry of Supply where she was working with men driving heavy lorries and tippers, wearing slacks beneath a boiler suit. One evening, returning home, tired on the bus after work, Allen was subjected to an extended tirade from a man who had known her since childhood. She chased him and they fought until both were exhausted.
That done Allen knew it was time to leave Warrington. A spate of letters to film companies, advertising firms etc. produced several offers (it being wartime there were many vacancies as staff were in the forces). As a masculine woman in slacks, Allen became a secretary at the Denham Film Studios just outside north-west London, which at that time was more used than the nearby Pinewood. She was part of the team under Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger which made The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, and then The Volunteer, a short starring Ralph Richardson.
At this point, in late 1943, Allen received a directive from the Ministry of Labour and National Service with instructions to report as a woman porter at a London station. This provided the nudge needed and Allen went to the Ministry of Labour headquarters in person, where he was put in touch with Valentine Harvey, the Chief Press Officer who accepted Allen as a man, quashed the directive and guided him through the bureaucracy. Allen's doctor who had previously treated him only for influenza, did a thorough examination and sent samples for pathological analysis. Allen wrote to his parents explaining that they had a son and not a daughter, and received a strongly supportive letter from his father.
In 1944 Allen took a position with Halas and Batchelor, the film cartoon company.
In September that year Allen wrote to the Registrar General, and with the doctor's report and a declaration from his parents, Allen was invited to Somerset House at the end of October that year where his birth certificate was rectified. He was asked for his male name, and, unprepared, chose ‘Robert’ from a glance at somebody else's documents.
In December Robert received a legal opinion that his first marriage was void ab initio, and he was free to marry his love from the Warrington Labour Exchange who was now working at Denham. They married quietly two days before Christmas, and spent the holiday with Robert's parents.
Allen returned to Denham to be the second assistant director on the film Carnival, directed by Stanley Haynes based on the novel by Compton Mackenzie. He was then an assistant to David Lean on Great Expectations, based on the novel by Charles Dickens.
In 1946, the British film industry suffered one of its periodic crises with the end of wartime government subsidies, and Allen was out of a job. In March his father died. Allen suffered a few years of short-term employments and unemployment.
Valentine Harvey helped yet again, and in 1948, Allen was awarded a grant to train as a medical auxiliary, and in 1951 qualified as a diagnostic radiographer.
He developed a friendship with another radiographer who was a fervent Catholic, and promised to look into the religion after qualifying. Which he did, and at Christmas 1951 was baptised into the Catholic Church.
After a number of temporary radiography posts, Allen became a science teacher at a Christian Brothers run College in Liverpool.
*Not the fabric designer, nor the finance writer, nor the composer. Alan Hart also used the name Robert Allen Bamford Jr in 1918. Also Laud Humphries was born Robert Allen Humphries. Robert Eads was in full Robert Allen Eads.
This is one of the country's earliest officially recognized gender changes. He did not take hormones or have surgery. Obviously he had an intersex condition with anomalous genitals, but he does not say which.
There is no record of Robert Allen after his 1954 book.
Viktor Kalnberz, of Latvian descent, was born in Moscow. Both his parents graduated from the Medical Faculty of the Moscow State University. They were sent to practice in Kyzyl, the capital of the Tuva People's Republic.
They returned to Moscow in 1936, and in 1941 to Riga, Latvia as the Great Patriotic War opened. The parents worked in an evacuation hospital. Despite these disruptions Viktor graduated high school and studied at the Medical Faculty of the University of Latvia 1945-51. From 1951 Kalnberz worked at and then led the Riga Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics.
He became internationally famous for transplanting fingers from dead persons onto live persons who needed them. He pioneered penis prosthesis technology at a time when Soviet orthodoxy was at best disinterested in treating impotence. He was a deputy of the Riga City Council 1963-7.
He had already performed four sex correction operations on intersex patients, when in the winter of 1968 he was approached by a 29-year-old trans man, an engineer who had already attempted suicide three times, whom we know only by his female name of Inna. Kalnberz treated him over the next four years.
“A medical council was convened; there was an endocrinologist, a sexopathologist, a gynaecologist, and a psychiatrist on the panel. They all agreed that conservative treatment methods were very unlikely to succeed in this case. The head of the Latvian republic’s health ministry had the last word. He gave us the permission, but did not actually sign any papers."In September 1970 the operation was approved, and it was done in stages.
“He was very afraid that people would learn about the operation. That is why when they gave him his new ID and other documents, I asked him not to give me his surname or address. I don’t even know his phone number. The only thing I asked of him was to give me a ring every now and then, and tell me about his condition. The last time I heard from him was more than five years ago. He was just under 70 at the time."Inna continued as an engineer. He married twice, and explained his scars to his wives as resulting from a car accident. Dr Kalnberz was summoned to several inquiries, but got off with a stern reprimand. The surgery on Inna was kept secret for 20 years.
In 1974 Kalnberz was issued a US patent for his penile implant using polyethylene plastic rods – in all he held 23 patents in different countries. He did a further five sex-change operations. He was a member of the Supreme Soviet 1975 – 1990. He treated Soviet cosmonauts, made a women's shortened leg longer by 60 cm, was a consultant to trauma teams across the USSR, in Tokyo, Munich, Moscow and at the Montreal Olympics. He worked with the army in Afghanistan where he developed an external fixation device to treat complex gunshot fractures.
He became a Hero of Socialist Labour and an Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences in 1988 and was given many other rewards.
He retired at age 80.
Kalnberz is admirable enough as is. Why does Gnedinskaya spoil it with the false claim of Inna's opeartion being a world's first?
There were two members of the Cockettes, the early 1970s San Francisco psychedelic drag troupe, who completed the journey to womanhood. We have already discussed Bobbi Cameron.
The other was Dahlia McGowan who looked like a young Elizabeth Taylor. She won a scholarship to study acting at the American Conservatory Theater. Bambi Lake describes her as funny and sweet.
After surgery she worked as a stripper in the sailor bars in San Diego.
In the 1980s Dahlia married, but her husband died in a bike accident.
Later she returned to Hawai'i to live with her mother.
One-time student nurse at Carney Hospital, Boston, Ethel Kimball was arrested several times after 1904 on forgery charges.
By 1919 he had become John Hathaway. He posed as the nephew of a wealthy manufacturer, and another time as the Boston manager of financier J.P. Morgan. Otherwise he posed as a technology graduate.
For two years he lived opposite a family in Somerville. He courted Louise of that family, and they were wed in November 1921 at Boston's Union Congregational Church.
Just over two weeks later Hathaway approached an automobile salesman about a purchase. The salesman became suspicious and reported the matter to the police, who arrested him.
Further examination determined that Hathaway was female-bodied. He was offered women's clothing, which he refused. An alienist who examined him found that he was sane but abnormal. The 'disillusioned bride' disappeared quickly. The accused was quoted:
'I wore men's clothes because I wanted to approach life's problems from a man's viewpoint, especially the problem of unemployment'.Hathaway told the court that the bride knew well what she was doing, but he pleaded guilty to 'falsifying the record' when applying for a marriage license.
A History of the Transsexual Action Organization (TAO) and some associates
See also Angela Douglas (1943 - 2007) musician, activist
Part 1: to 1971. USAF, music, GLF
Part 2: 1972-82. TAO in Miami Beach
Part 3: aftermath
Douglas Carl Czinki became Angela Douglas. Therefore when I write 'Douglas' alone there is ambiguity whether that is his forename or her surname. Up to 1969 it is the former. Douglas is not the only trans woman to use her boy name as her new surname, but I will not name the others.
While Angela Douglas is the dominant and central character in this history, there are several others who contribute significantly to trans history.
In quoting Douglas I have corrected spelling and punctuation, and sometimes added [words] to make it more readable.
Part I: to 1971. USAF, music, GLF1943
Douglas Carl Czinki born in Detroit, of Hungarian descent. Raised on USAF bases. Father was in AFOSI, Air Force Intelligence; mother employed by AEC, CIA and DEA.
Colette Tisha Goudie, born in France of French-Cuban descent.
Danny O'Connor born in San Antonio, Texas.
Kimberly Barreiro born in Cuba.
The Czinki family moves to South Florida neighborhood of Hialeah, which had a large Latino population. Douglas meets Norma Rodriguez.
Douglas at high school in Japan.
Against his family's opposition, Douglas marries Norma
Douglas plays in Charades, a roadhouse band in Oklahoma City; he also says that he was in USAF in this period.
As Doug Delain, Czinki plays guitar with band Euphoria with William D. Lincoln (bass, vocals), Hamilton Wesley Watt (vocals), Dave Potter (drums).
Virginia Prince rents a house in Laurel Canyon around the same time as Frank Zappa and many other musicians. There is no recorded interaction of Prince with the musicians.
Delain tries to form a band, Motorcycle Abilene, with Warren Zevon, and records songs with Love's Ken Forssi and Alban Pfisterer. Releases LPs: Trapped, C'est Dommage.
Delain has a cameo in Roger Corman's LSD film The Tripin Laurel Canyon. "There are two scenes in The Trip filmed there. [Peter]Fonda, [Bruce] Dern drive up, bikers in front including Roland God Barnett of The Barons, I painted "LOVE" on the street, did some of the art on the film. [Dennis] Hopper is passing joints around. I am in that scene, so is young future billionaire Paul Allen, a wanna be bass player then, hung out now and then there, helped me set up Hendrix's gear for a promo film Hendrix made there in 68."
Czinki's wife, Norma Rodriguez, pregnant, leaves him for a woman.
Danny O'Connor marries and they have a child.
Delain plays last music gig as a boat party for Steppenwolf in Hawai'i.
Jimmy Hendrix television special is filmed at Delain's home in Laurel Canyon.
Danny O'Connor wins nationwide contest "Super Teen: The Sounds of '68.
Czinki becomes Angela Douglas, and is active in LA GLF. There is no indication that she even considered Virginia Prince's FPE. "I was not gay and knew nothing of them prior to l969. I became a writer for The LA Image and communists and gays sought me out to promote their actions. I did, and got involved with the Gay Liberation Front, took part in a few protests, then formed the Transsexual Action organization with Canary Conn." (email to Kay Brown)
Colette Tisha Goudie starts living as female.
Singer Danny O'Connor releases two 45 rpm singles: "If I Am Not Free" and "Can You Imagine."(Click to listen). Later leaves wife and child and becomes Canary Conn. Canary has stage-one surgery with Dr Lopez in Tijuana.
Douglas and trans singer attacked when supposed to perform at LA gay lib dance.
Frustrated by 'antitransvestic' attitudes of some gay men, and that GLF ignored the push for a clinic in Los Angeles, Douglas founds Transvestite/Transsexual Action Organization (TAO).
Douglas and one other demonstrate at a showing of the newly released Myra Breckinridge, denouncing it as exploitative and objecting that a non-transsexual, Raquel Welsh, played Myra.
TAO protests when Los Angeles welfare officials discontinue aid to 'men' who dress as women.
TAO persuades the Californian Peace and Freedom Party to include in its platform "The right to determine the uses of one's body, as in sex changes operations and others" and gets the Socialist Party to call for an end to arrests for 'cross-dressing'.
Douglas writes to Harry Benjamin: "As I progress as a transsexual, I find myself more attuned to Women's Liberation, in particular, the demands and ideas of gay women".
In a published letter to Playboy, Douglas explains that TAO supported "both gay liberation and women's liberation: we believe that all victims of prejudice and discrimination must work together to change this society".
Czinki senior murdered in Maryland.
Douglas on a visit to New York as part of investigating father's death, meets with Zelda Suplee of the Erickson Educational Foundation, and passes on a leaflet for a demonstration in Sheridan Square for 'transvestite and transexual liberation'. However only Suplee and one organizer turned up.
TAO is renamed to Transsexual Action Organization. Transvestites no longer welcome.
Canary Conn answers an ad in the Los Angeles Free Press for TAO and attends: "The TAO advertised itself as 'a transsexual action organization' but turned out to be a gathering place for a bunch of drag queens who were mostly interested in running pink flags up poles and picketing college campuses as well as having sex with anyone who walked by, male or female. It was a fiasco." (Conn: 202)
There is an excellent book on the Los Angeles music scene in the 1960s: Weird Scenes Inside the Canyon, Headpress, 2013 by David McGowan. It points out that most of the noted musicians associated with Laurel Canyon had fathers in either the military or in intelligence: Frank Zappa, Papa John Philips, Stephen Stills, Gram Parsons. Jim Morrison's father, George Morrison, commanded the US warships in the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964 in the incident, false flag or not, that led to the escalation of the US-Vietnamese war.
Carl Douglas Czinki/Doug Delain fits right into this pattern, but is missing from McGowan's book.
There is an idea that Jim Morrison of the Doors survived his death and became Angela Douglas. Yeah right. Douglas commented on this in 2004: "Never even met The Doors, but they got signed with Electra by Arthur Lee. I am not James Douglas Morrison who apparently died in Paris in l97l (not l969.) The Doors, family think he faked his death. Incredibly, we were both born in 43, he in Florida, me in Michigan, I grew up mostly in Florida in the Air Force, he in the Navy, he left Tallahassee in 63-64 for LA he had attended FSU, I left Miami in 65 for LA and got Lee's new band hired at Bido Lito's (see on web), a club helped get open, sang with him a bit, cut two of my songs later with Love members. I was born Douglas Carl Czinki, he was born James Douglas Morrison, so there are some incredible similarities with our lives I can't explain, supernatural. I can sound very much like him when I sing, however, despite the sex change." (Amorous Propensities May 21, 2004 and October 21, 2004.)
Douglas says, GuitarSite 10/15/04: "I found out that Jim Fouratt (now an A and R man with Mercury NYC in a 1993 gay history book, Stonewall, falsely claims he removed firebombs I planted at NYU in 70 and is a big fucking hero. I was briefly in NYC in 70 and he assaulted me and a TV news team interviewing me, stalked me later in Miami and may have been involved in many tries to kill me". I checked Martin Duberman's Stonewall, 1993. There is no entry for Douglas, Czinki or Delain in the index. Fouratt is in the book, but I could not find anything resembling this claim.
Douglas married a woman, was later sexually attracted to other members of TAO, and in 1991 is reported as cat-calling pretty women on the street. In short was gynephilic, and could be said to be a heterosexual male who temporarily became a woman. Thus it is reasonable to ask why he did not simply join Virginia Prince's FPE, which was active in Los Angeles in 1969, before starting a new group? There would have course have been ego-conflicts.
Gift from Euphoria is on sale at Amazon. I cannot find the other albums for sale.
Douglas claims Canary Conn as a TAO co-founder because of her fame as a singer, while, according to her book, she attended only once and was horrified. Compare her attitude to that of Lili Elvenes (Elbe) who was equally horrified when she met the other trans women at Hirschfeld's Institute.
Part 1: to 1972. USAF, music, GLF
Part 2: 1972-82. TAO in Miami Beach
Part 3: aftermath
The two major sources that I have used for this are Joanne Meyerowitz and Susana Pena, both of whom read the two inaccessible books by Angela Douglas and the various issues of Moonshadow and Mirage, the TAO publications. Quotes via these two are not individually cited because of their unavailability. See Meyerowitz' and Pena's end notes for page references.
Mark Hinson's obituary was very useful for the later years.
The fourth major source are the emails and postings, some would say rants, by Angela Lee Douglas. These are URL linked, although only a few are still online. I did keep copies from eight years ago.
There were also a lot of articles written by Douglas for community papers. With only a few exceptions, I was not able to find these.
Part II. 1972-82. TAO in Miami BeachPart 1: to 1972. USAF, music, GLF
Part 2: 1972-82. TAO in Miami Beach
Part 3: aftermath
Douglas and TAO move to Miami Beach. Publishes Moonshadow and later Mirage Magazine over next three years. Douglas: "Year of the Transsexual in Miami Beach: hundreds were there, from all over the nation, and many Puerto Ricans and Cubans. … the cha-chas became as thick as tourists; the Latin transsexuals were referred to as 'cha-chas'."
Transvestites are still no longer welcome as members.
Douglas and Colette Goudie meet during the protests against the Presidential conventions in Miami Beach.
Kilo, 22 and pre-op, is a TAO member and also a popular performer who had appeared at the Stonewall club in a production of Wild Side Story.
Miami Beach's anti-cross-dressing ordinance is declared unconstitutional and police threaten to rewrite it. Kilo calls for street protests. The police continue to enforce the old ordinance nevertheless.
Collette Goudie joins TAO, as do Kimberly Barreiro and Tara Carn, Puerto Rican-born, New York-raised. Douglas: Goudie and Carn were ‘both very beautiful and wild and hated each other with a hot passion. Getting them to work together was nearly impossible’.
Kimberly fully transitions with surgery in less than a year. She marries Steve Elliot and they became involved in Art Kleps' psychedelic Neo-American Church at Millbrook, New York.
Goudie & Carn are arrested on Twenty-first Street beach for disorderly conduct. Surprisingly they are well treated by the police.
TAO sets up a 'security force' to stop police and public abuse of 'transsexuals and gays'.
After a raid and arrests at the Stonewall Club on Twenty-first Street, Douglas files suit for discrimination.
Article in Mirage objects to the emphasis in mainstream media on the medical aspects of transsexuality. There are more severe problems including exploitation by surgeons, psychiatrists and gender identity clinics, as well as extortion and persecution by the police.
After the American Psychiatric Association announced that homosexuality would no longer be considered a mental illness, TAO called for transsexualism to be likewise removed (although technically it was not even added until the 1980 version of the DSM).
Douglas steps down as president. Barbara Rosello becomes president of TAO: "Tao is an organization for transexuals only … We have many goals which can only be accomplished by our own efforts."
Rosella resigns due to family pressures and nerves. Goudie becomes 3rd president in September.
Carn was to have her photograph in Mirage. Her boyfriend was terrified. Carn: 'I'm proud of what I am, and I want to help anyway I can.' She is also quoted saying that that she is lesbian, and likes girls and other transsexuals.
Carn passes well. However the Miami Beach police follow her around and tell men that she is a 'fag in a dress'. "To retaliate, the beautiful Tara sometimes went to a crowded beach, started dancing topless to music from a radio and after a crowd of applauding people surrounded her, would take off her bikini panties, display her male genitals and cause a near riot. Police would arrive and she’d shake her genitals at them, screaming ‘you say I’m a man’ ...She was taken to jail, fined, and sometimes went back and repeated the performance."
Goudie and 2 other TAO members appear on Marsh and Adams Show on WKID in Fort Lauderdale, and discuss housing discrimination, police harassment, difficulties receiving proper medical attention and difficulties with getting identification.
During June, the Miami News published a series on transsexual issues. Four trans women are featured including two TAO members: Tara Carn and Colombian-American Crystal Gresham.
Crystal Gresham is TAO Miami Beach director. She ‘lives fully as a female except when teaching ballroom dance to elderly women in Miami Beach’.
Douglas first meets surgeon Dr John Brown. ‘He wanted to help aid me and came up with several thousand dollars cash to help publish Mirage Magazine. In exchange, I promoted him considerably’.
Canary Conn publishes her autobiography, followed by appearances on television.
TAO had increasingly bad-mouthed the Erickson Educational Foundation, which indeed never mentioned TAO or other militant organizations in its newsletters. Despite this Zelda Suplee on behalf EEF offers $20,000 to 'place the TAO within the EEF's framework'. Douglas declines, in that 'every cent would have strings attached'.
A TAO press release suggests that the CIA is behind the transsexual program at Johns Hopkins University Hospital, and that Donald Laub at Stanford's Gender identity Clinic was connected with a plot to transplant the brains of transsexuals.
In February issue of Mirage Jennifer Otera 'third place winner in the Miss [Gay?] Universe contest held in Caracas’ reports on intense police harassment in Venezuela.
In the same issue, Goudie is asked about transvestites: "I have nothing against them. Some transsexuals say they are transvestites because it’s easier for the world to comprehend. But it’s not the same. A transvestite is a man who dresses up like a woman for a little while and then becomes a man again. A transsexual, like you and me and so many others, live as we are all of the time. It is so different ...I don’t think it’s good for both TVs and TSs to belong to the same groups, as the values are so different, the laws and problems are so different. In some ways the problems overlap, but not completely."
However units or associate memberships were set up for non-transsexual members. Lesbian and transvestite units were created. The police did not observe any distinction between transvestites and transsexuals, and Moonshadow and Mirage continued to report harassment of both groups.
Intersex persons were offered full membership.
"TAO also strongly relates to the problems and efforts of transvestites, gay men and women and feminists. However, we consider transexualist values of paramount importance and are not subject to the values of other sociosexual liberationist movements, such as the feminist and gay liberation movements. We prefer to meet members in person."
Goudie on August cover of Moonshadow. Contains article by Douglas & Goudie on trans Santaria deities, especially Santa Barbara/Shango.
Kilo dies in a house fire.
Gay Action Alliance – Miami sue the police in Miami Beach for brutality, but refuse to include transsexuals in the lawsuit, even though they were more often targeted. This leads to TAO breaking off relations.
A network of UK trans activists loosely affiliate themselves with TAO. The group in Birmingham was run by Brooklyn (ftm) and Leyla (mtf) who were a couple. They urged an "anarcho-transformative, transsexual-separatist agenda" such as protesting a National Front march. Stephen Whittle, for a short while ran a London TAO group. (Whittle in Ekins & King: 192).
Birmingham TAO put out a leaflet: "The T.A.O. is a national organization which is open to all transsexuals (whether they are presently undergoing sex change treatment or not) irrespective of their race, religion, politics or sexual orientation. The T.A.O. has no official membership at present and is not structured. All decisions as to the running of the organization are taken collectively."
Moonshadow reports that TAO has had chapters in San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, Orlando and Jacksonville as well as Miami Beach. Abroad it has chapters in Canada, England and Northern Ireland. Almost a thousand members in all.
Canary Conn reportedly killed (reported by Douglas, however Kay Brown says that she met Canary at a later date).
TAO disbanded? Douglas travels in California and Hawai'i. Carn also leaves Miami, and has gender surgery. They meet again in Hawai'i, but Carn is unfriendly. Later she is arrested on a prostitution charge.
Douglas has vaginoplasty with Butcher John Brown and paid around $600. She describes him as one who "fed, housed, paid and helped hundreds, and gave free or nearly free surgery to at least two hundred of us". Brown has his California license revoked later that year. Later Douglas claimed that she "helped get him arrested twice".
Goudie joins Douglas in Berkeley, they fall out, and Douglas sends Goudie back to Miami on a plane.
Angela Douglas in San Francisco becomes upset at the vitriolic, absurd, and transphobic comments broadcast on listener sponsored station KPFA and letters published in the feminist journal Sister. Especially the attack on trans woman Sandy Stone donating her skills at the feminist Olivia Records.
Douglas meets Kay Brown who is with her when she writes a letter. Brown attempts without success to dissuade her from sending it. It is published in Sister Aug-Sep, p7. As quoted by Raymond p xvii it goes: "Free from the chains of menstruation and child-bearing, transsexual women are obviously far superior to Gennys in many ways .... Genetic women are becoming quite obsolete, which is obvious, and the future belongs to transsexual women. We know this and, and perhaps some of you suspect it. All you have left is your 'ability' to bear children, and in a world which will groan to feed 6 billion by the year 2000, that's a negative asset."
The letter is generally regarded as satire, but in her 1997 email to Kay Brown, Douglas insisted: "The l997 letter as for women becoming obsolete is valid, not whimsical or tongue in cheek, women are becoming obsolete as evidenced by Islamic treatment of women, etc. The future of humanity is male homosexual. Women are becoming irrelevant. I despise all lesbians anyway, and applaud when they get killed. I don't give a shit about feminists."
|photo by Kay Brown|
Douglas appears in a porn mag with pre- and post-op photographs of her genitals.
TAO formally dissolved.
Douglas reported to be participating in US Nazi politics.
Janice Raymond. The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-male: xvii quotes part of the letter to Sister out of context attributing it to 'one transsexual' and giving Douglas' name only in the end notes. Douglas later claimed that the 13 direct interviews cited in the book were actually quotes from a letter that Douglas had written to her.
Dave Potter, formerly of Euphoria, (and 86 others) dies in fire at MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas.
Kim Elliot is found dead at Miami Beach’s Midtown Plaza due to a drug overdose. She is buried in North Miami Beach, and TAO people attend her funeral.
The Mariel Boatlift exodus from Cuba adds many trans women to the Miami population.
Part III: aftermathPart 1: to 1972. USAF, music, GLF
Part 2: 1972-82. TAO in Miami Beach
Part 3: aftermath
Douglas returns to South Miami Beach and lives in the budget Drake Hotel. She dislikes the post-Mariel changes: "the Beach was dying. Cuban refugees by the thousands had moved in and had turned ratty South Miami Beach into a Cuban slum ...Italian and Jewish stores and restaurants had been taken over by Cubans, one by one. Lovely Lincoln Road had been transformed into a pathetic cheap-goods shopping mall run by Cubans. The Beach had deteriorated so badly I was horrified. …. a group of very idiotic, offensive young gays lived there, all prostitutes, and a bunch of Cuban drag queens lived there".
Douglas visits Goudie and has dinner with her and her mother. By now Goudie has had surgery, been to college, and visited Paris and Rome.
Goudie has become a born-again Christian and breaks with Douglas. She tapes the phone calls. Douglas claims to report Goudie and her mother to FBI as Castro agents.
Douglas returns to living as a man.
Douglas' autobiography: Triple Jeopardy. "After getting a copy of the book, Chris Craig of MCA's Lord Tracy did songs advocating violence against transsexuals, and in 89, kin to him, Jean Craig, did a TV commercial having the Daihatsu Charade set fire to a sign for a town named Euphoria, with power to burn." (GuitarSite, 10/15/04)
Douglas accuses the film Top Gun of stealing her life story (although there are no transsexuals in the plot)
Tallahassee Democrat reporter Mark Hinson later reported that Douglas "settled in dinky Grand Ridge near Sneads [north Florida] and lived in impoverished conditions. This made her very bitter and she often lashed out at gays and blacks when she called me with another rant".
The television news magazine Inside Edition does an investigative story on The Worst Doctor in America. Dr John Brown actually co-operates with the film crew. In transsexual circles Brown comes to be known as 'Butcher Brown', but patients still come. After the broadcast of the Inside Edition program, the San Diego District Attorney’s Office launches an investigation that leads to Brown spending 19 months in jail for practicing medicine without a license.
Layla of Birmingham TAO had reverted to living as man and moved to Liverpool. He marries a woman, and drops out of his college course. (Whittle in Ekins & King: 192)
Catherine Millot. Horsexe: Essay on Transsexuality repeats Raymond's selective quotation of Douglas' letter to Sister magazine.
Douglas wins $232,567 in the Fantasy Five lottery game. After taxes, the lottery gives him a check for $186,000. Returns to being Angela. She moves to Key West, buys a guitar and a red Corvette.
Douglas'then landlord comments: "I escorted her on cruises where she loved to gamble. She was more comfortable under the cover of darkness so most of our activities were at night. I remember she still had to shave, would not be caught dead in a dress, and made cat-calls to pretty Latina women on the streets of Miami from the corvette that we cruised in (bought with her lottery winnings)".
Douglas' second book: Hollywood's Obsession. Claims that most representations of transsexuals in the media are plagiarizations of her life.
The lottery money quickly runs out, especially when Douglas suffers a stroke. He returns to living as a man.
Members of the UK TAO group, especially Stephen Whittle, become involved in Press for Change, which would be very involved in achieving the 2004 Gender Recognition Act. (Stryker & Whittle: 6)
Ken Forsi, bass player in the band Love, who had recorded with Doug Delain in 1967, is also living in northern Florida, unemployed and obsessed with political conspiracies.
Arthur Lee, leader of band Love, sentenced to 12 years for negligent discharge of a firearm.
Douglas writes a twisted little novelty song called "Andrew Cunanan" and it ends up on Dr. Demento's nationally syndicated radio show.
"I showed up at a music festival in Blountstown, FL with two guitarists I'd met who thought I was a man, told them I am 'Lee Douglas,' did a dozen songs-first real performance since 1968! Went over great, and I then fooled around at some redneck bars around Panama City with them and others, got standing ovations" Performed as Last Drop Douglas.
Ken Forsi, dies of a brain tumor at age 54.
Dr John Brown, out of prison, lives and works in Tijuana. He removes the healthy leg of an apotemnophiliac who desired to have it removed. The man dies two days later of gangrene in a motel in California. Brown is arrested and tried by the San Diego authorities, even though the operation had been done in Tijuana. He is tried and convicted of malice murder. He is sentenced to 15 years to life.
Arthur Lee, leader of band Love released from prison. Douglas maintains he was released because Douglas lobbied the new President George Bush, POTUS 43.
Last Drop Douglas. Solo CD Cosmo Alley.
Arthur Lee dies in Memphis of myelois leukemia.
Douglas dies of complications from heart trouble. Obituary by Mark Hinsen in the Tallahassee Democrat.
Dr John Brown, still in prison, aged 87, dies of health problems including pneumonia.
Death of Douglas' ex-wife, Norma Czinki.
Yevgeny Arkhipov, Евгений Архипов, went to dances as a girl, and was able to obtain female hormones. However as there was no medical supervision, illness was induced, and Arkhipov had to stop taking them.
Arkhipov graduated as a lawyer from Voronezh State University in 2004, and married Yulia Guseinova:
"I explained that I like men, but I am a bisexual woman. In Russia, same-sex marriage is illegal, but in practice we have a same-sex marriage. Really, I am more of the wife and she is more of the husband in terms of gender roles."From 2004-6 Arkhipov was Head of the Legal Department of the Public Chamber of the Voronezh region, and from 2006 Chair of the Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights. Arkhipov was also the director of the watchdog Anti-Corruption Committee to which people could report abuses of office.
In 2008, while preparing to publish a report on corruption, Arkhipov and other members of the group were forced to flee to the Ukraine for two months where they released their findings.
In 2009, Arkhipov was the lawyer for Sergei Magnitsky, accountant, auditor and whistle-blower who was murdered in custody.
After being an organizer for a rally opposing toll roads that the local population had voted down overwhelmingly, Arkhipov faced a loss of status as a lawyer on the pretence that lawyers have no right to engage in social activism. At only one day's notice he was required to attend the qualifications commission of the Moscow City Bar. However charges were later dropped.
After an assassination attempt in June, Arkhipov temporarily left the country.
In 2010 Arkhipov spoke out against the blocking of websites run by the National Bolshevik Party. Shortly afterwards Arkhipov fell ill, and after a few days was taken to Moscow Hospital. Doctors confirmed that the symptoms indicated a toxin such as thallium, which is often used for murder. However at 22:30 the same day he was ordered to leave the hospital.
Arkhipov did live and worked on some of the most high profile and politically sensitive cases in Russia: young men accused of taking part in a violent nationalist rally on Manezh Square in 2010; helping defend protesters charged with violence at the 2012 opposition rally on Bolotnaya Ploshchad; and the so-called Primorye partisans, which targeted corrupt police in the Far East.
Arkhipov was the lawyer for Aleksandr Dolmatov of The Other Russia Party (successor to the National Bolshevik Party). Dolmatov fled to the Netherlands where he was refused political asylum, and was driven to suicide when put in a deportation centre, a placement which Arkhipov strongly criticized.
In particular Arkhipov defended trans activist Roman Sorokin, Роман Сорокин, in 2013. The Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti (FSB) threatened closure of the Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights. While in custody, Roman was interrogated for everything he knew about Arkhipov, whose home was searched in August 2013 by the FSB and two other civil activists detained.Sorokin was out of Russia at that point and in response began applying for political refugee status in France.
By this time Arkhipov's cases had come to a temporary end, and time was found to attend to personal matters. It was also a time when legal and social conditions for all LGBT persons in Russia were worsening: in particular the Anti-Gay Propaganda Law was passed in 2013. Despite this, a press release prepared by Yulia Guseinova publicly announced that her spouse, previously known as Yevgeny Arkhipov, would now be living as a woman, Masha Bast.
"At least 10 percent of people I know don't want anything to do with me anymore. Everyone else keeps in touch and calls me Masha now. Some people who you would have thought would've supported me based on their views haven't, and some nationalists, who based on theirs you wouldn't have expected to, have".
"What is bravery? Because I came out? I wasn't trying to prove that I was brave. It was my choice. I'm a free person. Bravery and freedom are one and the same in my case. You have to be brave to be free. The freer a person is, the braver they have to be."In September, Masha attempted to join the recently formed Western Choice Party, but was rejected. In October she held a picket on Red Square to memorialize the Yekaterinburg trans government employee, Dasha Shtern, who committed suicide after being fired because her continuing employment might break the new anti-gay propaganda laws.
Masha Bast continues as an activist for civil rights, feminism, LGBT rights and for a left-wing Russian party. She is still the chair of the Association of Russian Lawyers for Human Rights, and they are also monitoring the treatment of Victor Bout, a Russian political prisoner in the US prison system.
* not the curler Yevgeny Arkhipov.
The two books published in 2014 refer to Bast only as Yevgeny Arkhipov. However, given the pace of book publication, they were probably written before Masha came out in 2013.
In a time when the word 'hero' is being applied to persons who have done nothing out of the ordinary, Masha is the real thing.
Maritza DelCarmen Perdomo was born in Havana, of partial Taino heritage. From the age of three she was obviously a masculine girl, and constantly had problems with wearing dresses.
The family emigrated to Florida when she was five. She became a crack addict during a stint in the US Army. Afterwards Maritza went wild in the Miami gay scene, and at 24 made a last-ditch attempt to go straight by marrying a 55-year-old Englishman. However the marriage quickly fell apart as did several lesbian affairs. In one case the intention was to start a family, but Maritza was unable to get pregnant.
At age 38 in 2002 Maritza had become a bodybuilder and occupational therapist, where she took up with Violet who worked in the same gym. She was asked if she was transitioning, based on her appearance, but she did not understand the term until she looked it up on the internet.
"The sky just like opened up. There are others like me. It was like a revelation."Mark Cummings, as he became, went from an initial consultation with a therapist, to hormone therapy, to a full mastectomy and hysterectomy with Dr Harold Reed in Miami, to a legal name and gender change in just five months.
"It was the easiest thing. I don't let grass grow under my feet. I was fulfilling my destiny. This is what I was supposed to be."He and Violet were then legally married. To Mark's surprise it was his father alone in family who accepted him.
|Violet and Mark, 2004|
In January 2006 Mark and Violet appeared on the syndicated Maury Povich Show to great success.
"Well, Maury, I want viewers to know that being transgender is not a sin, a crime, or a deviant behavior. What it is, is a birth defect. We are human beings with feelings, and all we ask is the respect... "Following this, he was contacted by the Anderson family in Florida who were attempting to enrol their trans daughter, Nicole, in school. They were said to be the first US family to support a trans child in this way. Mark immediately agreed to help. He wrote in response to a negative posting:
"My mother did everything within her power to make me a girl, although, I knew other wise. When I met The Andersons, I had only wish they could have been my parents. When I met Nicole, I bonded instantly, and felt, what a lucky girl she is. Gender Dysphoria is real. To tell you the truth, there will be an epidemic of it. You see at 8 weeks time when the brain and central nervous system is being developed, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals ( pesticide, herbicides, fungicides, and estrogenic compounds such as soy products) alter the typical pathways that hard wires the brain to be a boy or girl brain. The weight of scientific evidence demonstrates that Transsexualism is biologically based."He also wrote to the school board offering to educate and train teachers himself – an offer that was declined. He persuaded the Andersons to talk to a reporter. They were grateful, but sometimes found him a bit overwhelming.
Mark became a celebrity on US Spanish-language television for his open and outspoken appearances explaining his gender change and wowing the Latino television hosts. Again he explained transgenderism as a birth defect resulting from environmental toxins, and affirmed his strong Catholic faith. Later that year Mark Cummings published his 79 page autobiography wherein he described the anguish he felt living in a female body:
“Being in the wrong body is a crime. Death is appealing to those of us, who are encased in the wrong shell, who are trapped in a ﬂesh of darkness, that ...sickens us to the point of madness” (pp 33).Mark and Violet opened a wellness center business. He also wrote and performed music and toured with his life story.
Continued in Part II.
It was said at the time that the Anderson family was the first US family to be supportive of a trans kid in this fashion. However the Wisconsin woman we know by the pseudonym of Sally Barry was supported by her parents in the 1930s/1940s with varying response from the school authorities
Continued from Part I.
In 2012 Mark met his second wife, Jessica Lynn (1974 - ), in a transgender show girl bar. Jessica transitioned in her 30s with the help of a therapist after two failed suicide attempts and a few years as a gay man. She took Mark's surname even before they were married. They had each others name tattooed on their bodies.
"In spite of our differences, Aries and Cancer, I have never loved anyone as much as I love her".They started the internet program Transition Radio, which featured extensive video interviews with various US trans persons and others. Jessica and Mark purchased a recreational vehicle, set up a new blog Transgender Highway and traveled around the US. Mark published a health guide for travelers.
In 2013 their relationship was featured in both The New York Post and The Daily Mail.
|Mark and Jessica|
In 2014 Mark was interviewed in LGBTQIA where he spoke about how he felt
"honored to be part of the many great inspirational Trans men that [Lynn Conway] has showcased on her site. Success is a very personal word and means many different things to many people. I personally believe that being successful means being happy with who you are and what you have accomplished." and "“I believe being transgender is a gift a Spiritual awakening that is manifesting in physical form … We as transgender individuals have a major responsibility to enlighten the world. Instead we are blending in and doing much of the same, this solves nothing and that is why we continue the hamster wheel".Later that year, Mark was told that he had been selected for the 2014 GLAAD Trans100, (a list that seems to have been removed from the internet). However he made critical statements about Janet Mock and her interview by Piers Morgan. He was then deselected. On his Facebook page he wrote:
"I am seeing a very strange twist in our community, and why are we all of a sudden admiring individuals who have recently come out as advocates with little to no experience in that role. One is an actress, the other stealth for many years working at Peoples magazine behind a cubicle and now decides to write a book and is identifying as a fierce advocate? Both trans woman of color, which seems to be a very prominent twist these days as if they are the only ones in the trans community who have suffered and constantly harp on how bad they have it, leaving behind the rest of us. Separating themselves, creating their own groups and associations and hijacking the community at large."For this he was denounced as prejudiced against persons of color. In July Mark and Jessica sympathetically interviewed Cathy Brennan, the Maryland attorney associated with antagonism towards trans persons. Shortly afterwards they broke up as a couple.
Mark's third wife is Lynna Lopez who also took his surname when they married in June 2015.
“Falling in love for the first time in my life has allowed me to feel my true nature, whichLynna is now co-host on Transition Radio, which has changed its message. Mark now denounces the therapist and surgeon who enabled him to transition:
is my feminine self".
Lynna and Mark
“I went on Testosterone, and 5 months later, I had my precious breast and my amazing reproductive organs ripped out of me, all in a quest to be a ‘man’. What sane person does this, and what medical professional who swears to do no harm goes along with this diabolical plan? I am sorry but now that I have come to my senses and see what this vile community has become, I see the reason for the vileness and the darkness in its intent.”Transition Radio lost all its sponsors, and Lynn Conway removed Mark form her Successful Trans Men site. Mark/Maritza is also now speaking out against supporting trans kids and especially against prescribing puberty blockers to them. The New York Times gave him a platform where he argued that no-one should transition before their mid-20s. He has said: "And it’s usually a Munchausen by proxy-driven mother and it’s always a kind of wimpy dad-kind of thing going on, mom wears the pants in the family.”
Transition Radio featured DirtyWhiteBoi, who in return published an interview on her blog with Matitza:
"I always felt different but never the typical programed response the community harps on. In my opinion there is no such thing as being born in the wrong body. It’s a neurological impairment, behavioral and mental issue, nothing wrong with the body. … I think much different now. But unfortunately, the changes are so deep, that it is hard to go back. I do identify as a female, I will never deny my truth. … I regret all my surgeries, they are butchery and not necessary. Hysto and top surgery. … I got sick of the trans community and how they badger people. I saw the vile behavior, the lies, I could not longer be part of that. They have deeper issues than gender problems and are in denial about it. Its time the gender specialists stepped up and did their job and looked at the deeper issues."When Dawn Ennis writing for The Advocate asked Mark to nominate a sponsor or well-known public figure to speak on his behalf, he suggested Cathy Brennan. Mark still chooses to be addressed by male pronouns as that has been the case for the 12 past years. He says that he and Lopez now identify as “two-spirit” or “gender-variant,” saying, “We all have this duality".
While Mark affirms his strong Catholic faith, some may wonder how that is consistent with repeated divorces and re-marriages, astrology, tattoos, and of course gender change.
With each wife, Cummings discovers love for the first time!! A gentleman would not take that attitude to his previous wives.
"And it’s usually a Munchausen by proxy-driven mother and it’s always a kind of wimpy dad-kind of thing going on, mom wears the pants in the family.” This is of course a return to Robert Stoller, the 1950s and the sexist idea that homosexuality, transgender and many other psychoanalytic conditions are caused by a weak absent father and a dominant mother.
Whether or not Cummings is racist, to denounce him as prejudiced against 'persons of color' is problematical as he himself is Hispanic.
Whilst not aligning with Cummings' position, some of the issues that he has raised should be getting more discussion within the trans community:
Dawn Ennis' article on the Cummings includes "Brennan’s statement, however, contradicts a February finding by researchers at the Boston University School of Medicine who concluded 'there is increasing evidence of a biological basis for gender identity'." As Gender Identity Watch was delighted to point out, this sentence is not to be found in the journal article in question. The claim was not needed for Ennis's article, and it was a sloppy error to make.
Dr Bahram Mir-djalali is a surgeon in Tehran. He trained in Paris and in Belgium.
He had done over 320 sex-change operations in the 12 years to 2005, far more than he would have done in Europe, partly because of Iran’s total ban on homosexuality. He does the more complex vaginoplasty building from an intestinal graft.
He has now done over 1,000 operations, over 90% mtf. Up to half the cost is covered by charities with approval of the state. However, despite the official acceptance of gender change by the Iranian government and clergy, social acceptance is low. Dr Mir-djalali estimates that fully one third of his patients opt for suicide sooner or later.
Kokkorn is well known in Thailand as a model for soaps.
She acted in the two สตรีเหล็ก (Satree lek - Iron Ladies) films, 2001 and 2003 about a winning gay/trans volleyball team (based on a real team that did win in 1996).
Kokkorn also performs in cabaret.
She became married in December 2006 to a photographer whom she first met when he came to take pictures of the first Iron Ladies film. and in 2009 she issued a pocket book about her wedding.
Part I: youth and war
Part II: powerboat racer
Part III: Lord of the island
Jabez Bostwick (1830-1892) of New York was the Secretary of Standard Oil (ruled to be an illegal monopoly in 1911) and, along with his partners the Rockefellers, became very rich. He and his wife, Nellie, had two daughters and a son (genealogical tree).
The younger daughter, Frances Evelyn (1872-1921) mainly lived in England and eventually had 4 husbands: the first was Captain Albert Joseph Carstairs of the Royal Irish Rifles, the legal father of Marion Barbara Carstairs, born 1900. The Captain disappeared shortly after the daughter's birth.
In 1903 Evelyn married her second husband, Captain Francis Francis, with whom she had Evelyn and Francis Francis Jrs. Five-year-old Marion was thrown from a bolting camel at London Zoo, and afterwards renamed herself 'Tuffy'. She would later say
"I was never a little girl. I came out of the womb queer."At age eight, Tuffy was caught stealing her step-father's cigars, and seeking to punish her by making her sick, Francis Francis, Sr, ordered her to sit down and smoke one, which, already being an accomplished smoker, she did with no problem.
Evelyn, dependent on alcohol and heroin, was variable as a mother. She fired a nanny for being too close to Marion. Even as a child Tuffy loved boats and had her own dinghy. At age eleven, she was put on an ocean liner bound for New York, and had been enrolled in Low-Haywood, then a girls' boarding school in Stamford, Connecticut. Tuffy loved the school uniform and used her pocket money to buy boys' clothes, a hobby shared by her room-mate.
In 1915 Evelyn married Count Roger de Perigny, a sub-lieutenant in the 19th French Dragoons. To his stepdaughter's delight he treated her as a boy, adapted his racing car so that she could drive it, offered her cigars, introduced her to his mistresses, and even took her to a Parisian brothel.
At age 16, using Nellie Bostwick's influence, Tuffy went to Paris as a ambulance driver for the American Red Cross, arriving shortly before the US joined the war. Tuffy had an affair with Dolly Wilde, niece of Oscar. Dolly was a popular member of the expatriate lesbian scene on the Left Bank dominated by Natalie Barney, but Tuffy was left at the periphery.
In 1917 Evelyn met Serge Voronoff (1866-1951) who rejuvenated old men by transplanting monkey glands and who briefly inspired Harry Benjamin. Evelyn became his laboratory assistant and financial investor, and by dint of this, the first woman admitted to the Collège de France. With Evelyn's money, Voronoff was able to continue his research despite the skepticism of the medical establishment.
In 1918 Evelyn summoned her daughter to her rooms at the Paris Majestic Hotel, told her that she knew that she was a lesbian: "If you don't do what I want you to, just walk out that door". "Thank you, mother", said Marion, and walked out. However, later that year, she married a childhood friend, Comte Jacques de Pret, and they split the $10,000 dowry. They then parted amicably, non consummatum.
The War over, the Comtesse de Pret, as she now was, went to Dublin and joined the Women's Legion Mechanical Transport Section which served as drivers to British officers. The Comtesse was referred to as Tuffy de Pret, and took up with the Coleclough sisters, Bardie and Molly. She cut her hair short (and kept it so for the rest of her life). She also took to wearing men's boots and puttees.
In 1919 as the Irish Independence War (Cogadh na Saoirse) was beginning, a dozen of the drivers, including de Pret, volunteered for work in northern France clearing battlefields, burying the dead, driving troops, labourers and prisoners-of-war. They did their own repairs. They became friends with Joan MacKern who had been driving under fire since 1917. They worked alongside the remnant of the Chinese Labour Corps who had been recruited after China entered the war in 1917.
Tuffy completed his transition to Joe, wearing only male clothes, including a beret, which he continued to wear throughout the twenties. "Joe” was his father's middle name, but he claimed not to know that.
The four were demobilised on 23 April 1920. On arrival in London Joe took them to the theatre, and put them up in a hotel. Four days later Joe's grandmother Nellie Bostwick died aged 77, leaving an estate of $30 million (over $350 million in today’s money). Until the will was executed, Joe had no money, and for the only time in his life, had to work for income. However his inheritance income was $145,000 in 1921 and $200,000 in 1922 (this at a time when the average male wage was less than £2 a week or £100 a year). Joe, Molly, Bardie and Joan set up a chauffeuring business in London, The X Garage, based in Kensington, and they lived in the flat above. They bought 'a handful' of Daimler landaulettes.
Later in 1920 Evelyn and Serge married. That year her English translation of his Life: a means of restoring vital energy and prolonging life was published in New York by Dutton. Evelyn died aged 48 in March 1921. Carstairs would always maintain that Voronoff had murdered her and arranged for a doctor friend to sign a death certificate saying 'natural causes'.
Following Evelyn's death, the marriage with Jacques de Pret was annulled, and Joe changed his legal surname back to Carstairs by deed poll.
The X Garage prospered, driving clients all over Europe and North Africa. The fashion in the 1920s was for women to be boyish in their dress and hairstyle. This of course suited Joe who took it further than most: navy-blue jackets, ties, cufflinks, dinner jackets, the extra wide Oxford Bags. A barber came regularly to Joe's home to crop his hair. His suits and jackets were from the best men's tailors.
He was frequently seen at the best parties. He would pose, three fingers inside his jacket pocket, thumb and little finger outside. He imitated photographs of Rudolph Valentino. He usually posed with a cigarette, and sometimes a pipe or cigar, but said that it was merely for effect: that he never inhaled.
Joe liked impersonations and disguises. He turned up at the house of his lover, variety star and horsewomen, Gwen Farrar, as a workman and plastered the front with posters; he arrived at the flat of Norah Blaney, Gwen's stage partner, and examined all the light fittings before being rumbled. He had a brief affair with Tallulah Bankhead when when she was the darling of the London stage in 1923.
Joe bought and developed a secluded estate near the Coleclough farm in Hampshire, which he named Bostwick. He bought a yacht, Sonia, and became so proficient that by 1924 he was winning yachting prizes.
Both Nellie's and Evelyn's wills were settled. Francis Francis Sr, Voronoff and Joe had contested Evelyn's. Voronoff received all the income from the residue of the estate, $325,000 a year, to be redistributed between Joe, Sally and Francis Jr on his death.
Probably just as well that Frances Evelyn Bostwick preferred to be known as Evelyn, given that she married Francis Francis. However Evelyn Waugh’s first wife was Evelyn Gardner – a marriage that lasted only one year.
Joe avoided his birth name of Marion although it was/is a unisex name: note especially Marion Morrison who acted under the stage name of John Wayne.
Evelyn died at age 48, an early age even in the 1920s. However we should remember her heroin habit. Also her sister Nellie died age 38, and her brother Albert aged 35. See genealogical tree. So she was actually the survivor. On the other hand Joe lived to be 93, and Albert’s two children lived to be 101 and 79.
The key text for the life of Joe Carstairs is Kate Summerscale's The Queen of Whale Cay, 1997. As you may deduce from her title, she regards Carstairs as an eccentric woman. Although she mainly refers to him as Joe rather than Marion, she persists in using female pronouns and nowhere in the book raises the question whether Joe should be regarded as a trans man. In this period, and until after the Second World War, there was no clear distinction between lesbian and trans. They were both types of 'inverts' - a term that Summerscale does not use. Some inverts designated others, ones that they did identify with - for example for being working class - as perverts. To some extent inverts were regarded as having been born that way, and perverts as having been corrupted, as having made a sort of choice. Actually things have not changed that much.
To simplify a little, we can identify three groups of female trans persons. There were the working class ones, often referred to as 'female husbands' (although not all took wives). Some feminist writers deny that these persons were trans, and maintain that they transvested only to earn a man's wage. However many of these lived as men outside work and stayed in the role for many decades. Generally they passed, even without any access to male hormones (which did not become avialable until the 1940s). They had to - otherwise they would lose their jobs. A good book on these is Alison Oram's Her Husband was a Woman!, 2007. Some examples that we have already discussed are Ernest Wood, Harold Lloyd, Michael Johnson.
Secondly there were upper-class lesbians, some of them fabulously rich, who played with gender. Some of these are famous: Natalie Barney, Dolly Wilde, John Radcliffe Hall, Colette. Transvestism was a game. And in the early 1920s women wearing men's clothes became the height of fashion, for those who were rich enough to follow fashions - that is, not for serving maids, mill girls or shop girls. See Laura Doan's Fashioning Sapphism, 2001, for a good account of this fashion. This group did not need to pass, and usually were seen as women in men's clothes. They did not need to worry about laws against transvestity for they were rich and had special privileges.
The interaction between the female husbands and the rich lesbians was almost nil. Unlike amongst gay men it was not the done thing to take a lover from the lower classes.
Thirdly we can also pick out, not a group because they did not network, but individuals who were not simply transvestites, but took their masculinity much more seriously. We have already discussed Mathilde de Morney, Madelaine Pelletier, Violette Morris. These persons, like the female husbands, stayed in a masculine role for decades, but were either professionals or had inherited wealth. One wants to label them as trans men avant le lettre, but annoyingly (to us) they did not take a masculine name - thus when I wrote about them I decided, with reservations, to stick with female pronouns. Joe Carstairs has much more in common with de Morney, Pelletier and Morris than he does with Barney, Wilde, Hall and Colette. And he took a male name. Each of the four made their own way through life without any trans role model to follow. They were real pioneers. Of these only Carstairs lived beyond the Second World War into an era when surgical ftm operations became available. But he was quite old then, and set in his ways.
In watching de Morney, Pelletier, Morris and Carstairs we are watching the social construction of 'trans man' emerge from its birth pangs.
In Jack Judith Halberstam's Female Maculinity, 1998, he pretty much ignores the working class female husbands and under that term mainly discusses the aristocratic Gentleman Jack (Anne) Lister. He also discusses the rich lesbian transvestites of the 1920s such as Radcliffe Hall, but has almost nothing to say about de Morney, Pelletier, Morris and Carstairs.
Part I: youth and war
Part II: powerboat racer
Part III: Lord of the island
The key text is the book by Kate Summerscale, which I have high-lighted below. Carstairs was a media personality from 1925 till at least 1945. A quick search produced the rather long list of newspaper articles, but that is far from complete. In particular the UK newspaper articles are missing.
There are a few oddities in Summerscale’s generally good book:
However google Hugh Brooke and you find that he wrote the novel.
Part I: youth and war
Part II: powerboat racer
Part III: Lord of the island
The next year Joe commissioned the best motorboat that money could buy, a hydroplane from Samuel Saunders of East Cowes, Isle of Wight. Joe named the boat Gwen after his lover, Gwen Farrar. After the boat capsized and came up again, Joe reversed the name to Newg.
At the end of 1925, Joe and his girlfriend/secretary, Ruth Baldwin, took a skiing holiday in the Swiss Alps. Ruth bought for Joe a German leather doll, just over a foot high. Joe called it Lord Tod Wadley, and it stayed with him all his life, except for the boat races, in case they capsized. Joe and Ruth lived on different floors in a house in Chelsea, with a cook and a maid.
Saunders offered Joe the services of his chauffeur/mechanic, Joe Harris. The two Joes became devoted to each other and Harris rode as mechanic in almost all Carstairs' races over the next five years.
They took part in the Duke of York’s International Trophy, and in 1926 after most competitors had fallen out, the Newg's propeller was caught by a submerged rope, but Joe managed to cut the rope, and completed the course to win the trophy (a year earlier than Violet Morris' win in the motor racing Bol D'Or).
The press took to referring to Joe as "Betty", even though that was not his female name, and it was a name that he strongly disliked.
The two Joes also won the Royal Motor Yacht Club International Race, the Daily Telegraph Cup, the Bestise Cup and the Lucina Cup. On Lake Windermere Joe set a world record of 54.97 mph for a 1½ litre class boat.
In 1927 Joe commissioned Samuel Saunders to build three hydroplanes designed to be the fastest craft ever at a cost of £50,000. In a significant lapse of memory, Joe named the boats Estelle I, II and III after his mother Evelyn.
Estelle I sank on its first outing. Joe took Estelle II to Detroit to compete in the 1928 Harmsworth Cup. He posed for the local press. One newspaper wrote:
"A puzzler: Mannish: This picture you might accept as that of a male movie star, might you not? It isn't."Another paper ignored what they saw and described Joe as
"the pretty English motor-boat racer".The press copied their colleagues in England and insisted on referring to Joe as 'Betty'. The New York Times usualyy stuck with "Miss Marion Carstairs".
In the race both Joes were thrown into the water and had cracked ribs. Joe Carstairs went dancing that evening nevertheless.
Carstairs then set up his own boatyard in East Cowes with Joe Harris as chief engineer. Estelle IV was entered in the 1929 Harmsworth Cup but hit a log.
The trial for obscenity against Radcliffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness had been in November 1928, and 1929 saw both Victor Barker's trial for making a false statement on a marriage certificate and Violette Morris' failed legal case against the Fédération française de sports féminins. The tide was turning against masculine women.
At the 1930 Harmsworth Cup, the Estelle V set an American speed record, but broke down in the actual race. Carstairs had spent $500,000 attempting to win the Harmsworth Cup, but now conceded defeat.
Back in England, Joe contributed £10,000 towards a racing car for Malcolm Campbell which set a new land-speed record, and Campbell was knighted. Campbell described Joe Carstairs as
"the greatest sportsman I know".Joe participated in a few more races, but without success. Carstairs provided Joe Harris an income in perpetuity, and attended his bedside when he lost his legs in old age.
Joe, Wadley and Mabs Jenkins, a manicurist, set out on a 15-month world tour. In India they both shot a panther. In Ceylon a man acted as batman to Joe and Mabs. He asked Joe's permission to marry, and Joe gave him a lifetime income.
On return Joe still built boats, but no longer for racing.
In 1933 he saw an advert in a US newspaper for the sale of an island in the Bahamas. In 1934 he bought Whale Cay for $40,000.
Additional reasons for a move were that Joe was having to face a large bill in England in that he had never paid any income tax, and that his relationship with Ruth Baldwin had broken down, and there was a growing hostility in the press.
"I want to be left alone" he was quoted, two years after Greta Garbo had used the phrase in Grand Hotel, 1932.
Part I: youth and war
Part II: powerboat racer
Part III: Lord of the island
In 1934, 60,000 persons, 50,000 of them descendants of slaves, lived in the Bahamas. Most of the whites lived in Nassau, the capital, and rarely went to the other 700 islands of the archipelago. In the previous few years a series of hurricanes had wraught damage; the rum industry had collapsed since the ending of US alcohol prohibition; the sponge trade was in decline because of overfishing.
One of the first things that Joe did on Whale Cay was to hire seven men to lay a road across the island. Dressed in khaki he laboured alongside them. One day, at lunch, he managed to throw a knife and kill a snake, and then after that he was 'The Boss'.
Buildings went up and a store was opened. Joe paid men 16 shillings a week and women 12 shillings. Joe could curse but no-one else was allowed to. Three hundred men laboured on the great house which was finished in 1936.
They cleared the coconut groves and planted 3,000 palm trees. Fruit and vegetables were planted where suitable. Women are assigned to weeding: weedresses. Joe did not approve of women labourers:
"If there weren't so many lazy men, women wouldn't have to go to work".The lighthouse was rebuilt, and for the first time an electric beacon installed; a power plant was built, a radio station, a schoolhouse and a museum. Fish were canned or kippered, fertiliser extracted, pigs and chickens reared. Joe bought more islands: Bird Cay, Cat Cay, Devil's Cay, half of Hoffman's Cay, and established plantations of cantaloupes, potatoes, celery, strawberries, asparagus, bananas, carrots, rice and peanuts. A harbour was dredged and more boats were built.
Ruth Baldwin refused to live on Whale Cay as it was too primitive, and Joe bought her a second home near Miami. Joe had a new lover, Addison, also a masculine woman, who 'doped awfully'.
A guest on the island was Hugh Brooke, novelist, who wrote Saturday Island (filmed 1951) while living there. Together Joe and Hugh devised elaborate games for the guests. Joe would, as a prank, do drag as female icons such Salome or Cleopatra.
Friends and acquaintances from England came. They had a beach for every wind. The black employees were expected to keep to their own beach. Joe attempted to ban obeah on the island, but as he was seen with Wadley at his side, wherever he went, he was taken to be a practitioner.
In 1936 Joe's racing trophies were stolen from the house in Chelsea, where Ruth Baldwin still mainly lived. Ruth died a year later, of a suspected drug overdose.
That was the year that Joe parked his yacht on the French Riviera and first met and loved Marlene Dietrich.
In December 1937 a US yacht ran aground. The New York Times reported a 'girl garbed in men's clothing' who guided the US Coast Guard.
In 1938 Joe and Marlene rekindled their affair when Joe helped Marlene to buy a yacht. One night on the Riviera, invited to a formal dinner with Dietrich and soprano Grace Moore, Joe arrived inevitably in a tuxedo. The two women insisted that he change into a dress. Joe complied, but when they saw him so, they agreed that a tuxedo was the right way to dress.
The Bishop of Nassau came to dedicate the church on Whale Cay. Joe arranged for pistol shots to be fired outside his window at 1am, and was impressed that he never said anything about it.
Joe loved to dress up as a woman for parties in frumpy dresses and excessive makeup. He also liked to dress up as a doctor and play the part. But he also did set up a hospital on the island, and captained a ship round the Windward Islands so that the Red Cross could reach those who needed treatment.
Joe administered rough justice to the islanders. In particular, despite his own promiscuity, Joe disapproved of adultery, and those who were found out were usually banished from the island. In one case, in 1939 a man was horse-whipped and complained to the British government, who ruled that whoever owned an island in a dominion was effectively judge and jury. Joe insisted that all the islanders attend church each Sunday, and that they contribute into a health-care fund. He paid for and arranged the funeral of anyone who died on the island. New-born children were taken to Joe to be named. For several of the girls he gave the names Marion and Barbara that he had spurned for himself.
All the servants in Joe's house were men: "I like men. Most of my friends are ordinary men. I've never been frightfully fond of pansies, but manly men." The one pansy she did like being Reverend Julian Henshaw (1904-1951), the vicar of the island church, who was almost as outrageous as Joe, and had a fondness for young men.
Joe gave Marlene ownership of one of the beaches on Whale Cay. However their friendship went sour, partly because of Joe's French secretary who was hired as a companion for Dietrich's daughter and later dismissed, and a dispute over a gem-encrusted bracelet.
In December 1939 Joe gave a banquet for 1200 people in Nassau, the capital of the Bahamas, his first public appearance.
In 1940 the US author, Damon Runyon, wrote in his newspaper column about how a friend of his had landed his amphibious plane at Whale Cay:
"a short, stock-built dame came popping out of a house on the cay with a double-barrelled shotgun in her dukes and dull menace in her lovely orbs".Edward Windsor, who had been King of the British Empire in 1936, before abdicating to marry a US divorcee, was open in his admiration of Nazi Germany. To get him out of the way, he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas in 1940 for the duration of the war. In January 1941, the Windsors made a formal visit to Whale Cay, which was featured in Life magazine, but again referring to Joe using the disliked name 'Betty'.
|Gubernatorial visit, January 1941: Edward, Joe, Wallis, Julian (Wadley insert)|
Dolly Wilde died 1941. After Ruth's death in 1937, Joe had started writing poetry. In 1940 and 1941, these and other poems were privately printed under the name of Hans Jacob Bernstein, a supposed Czechoslovakian refugee.
|Joe in 1941|
In August 1942 the US ship Potlatch was torpedoed, and Carstairs took one of his boats and rescued 47 sailors.
Gwen Farrar died in 1944, as did Mabs Jenkins who had done the world tour with Joe.
That year Joe took up flying. To obtain the licence he needed to supply his birth certificate, and finally discovered his mother's real name.
Erich Remarque, who had been with Marlene Dietrich when she met Joe, put him in his 1945 novel, Arch of Triumph, as a yachting captain, and of course as a man. (It was filmed 1948, and again 1985 but without the yachting captain character)
By 1945 Joe had finally finished paying off his British back taxes. He then applied for US Citizenship, and spent three years attempting to get permission to build a small-craft airport outside Miami.
Serge Voronoff died aged 85 in 1951, as did the Reverend Julian Henshaw who after a trip to Rome, returned with an advanced case of syphilis.
Joe started having aches and pains in his legs from the late 1950s. By the 1960s Joe found the islanders to be less subservient. Increasingly he was living in a houseboat in Miami. There is no record of any interaction of Joe with TAO which was active in Miami Beach at that time.
In 1975 he sold Whale Cay for just under $1 million. He bought a house in Miami and moved all the furniture from the house on Whale Cay. He also set up a display of photographs of all his girlfriends, 120 by this time. He spent the summers in Long Island.
By 1978 he had met a younger man, Hugh Harrison, aged about 60, and invited him to share his home, in Miami, and then in Naples, Florida. They had a cook and a maid, and as Joe's health failed, a series of nurses. Joe refused to take any medicines at all.
His favourite jacket was an English blazer, with a crest, that had been bought in the 1920s. Dietrich played a Miami concert, and Joe sought an audience, and they sort of had a reconciliation.
Bardie Coleclough had left her husband after the War, and, while living on an income from Joe, became a communist, a CND activist, a vegetarian and a Rolls-Royce enthusiast. She died, aged 89 in 1986.
Joe insisted that he was more manly than Hugh because Hugh was gay. When he needed waterproof underwear, he insisted on the male variety. However by this stage he had started regularly wearing foundation and lipstick. He died a few weeks short of his 94th birthday. Joe and Lord Wadley were cremated together.
Obviously Joe was not a feminist who advocated equal job opportunities and wages.
While sexually interested in women, and proud of his 120 conquests, he quickly tired of most of his lovers, and expressed a preference for male company. Homosocial heterosexuality was very common among men of his generation. Added to this was his assumption that he was more of a man in that he was not gay!
Joe did some good things for the inhabitants of his islands, but alwys things that he decided, and he imposed rules upon them that he did not conform to himself.
He was sufficiently comfortable in his masculinity that he was able to do reverse drag.
Apart from a few pioneers who happened to have the right connections or be in the right place at the right time, transgender surgery was not feasible, and less so for ftm until the 1960s at the earliest. By then Joe was an old man suffering from arthritis. In addition it was very much of his nature to refuse all and every medicine. So he would not take male hormones. Unlike Violette Morris he was naturally small-breasted and so did not need any top surgery.
Obviously Julian Henshaw did not catch syphilis in Rome as it takes some years to get to the tertiary stage.
Joe was frequently read. After all he had been a famous speedboat competitor, and rumours sped about the lord of Whale Cay.
The February 1941 issue of Life, which featured Joe and the Windsors, also contained Henry Luce's essay, "The American Century".
Wallbank was raised in an Irish Catholic family in Sydney, with a father in the army. Wallbank met his wife, Louise, at a school dance, and told her of feminine side before marriage.
Wallbank did a Law degree at the University of New South Wales, and was called to the bar in 1980 in Sydney, and has owned a firm, Wallbanks, since 1985. Wallbank is an accredited specialist in Family Law.
Wallbank and Louise, had two daughters and a son.
Wallbank transitioned as Rachael in 1994, after her mother had died. She was apprehensive in that she did not know of any other lawyer who had transitioned. However enough clients stayed that the business could continue.
Louise left and has since remarried. The children
"showed to their friends that I didn't have horns to the extent that my children could openly refer to me as 'Dad' and no-one would raise an eyebrow".Rachael's father was initially unsupportive, but finally came round and gave Rachael her mother's engagement ring. He died in 1999.
A highlight of Rachael's career was acting for Kevin (FTM) and her wife, Jennifer (pseudonyms), who had been denied the right to legally marry. Professors Louis Gooren and Milton Diamond gave evidence. They proposed and the Family Court of Australia recognised that transsexualism is a biological variation in human sexual formation, rather than a psychological disorder.
In 2001, the Family Court of Australia ruled in favour of Kevin and Jennifer, and later the Full Court of the Family Court dismissed the government’s appeal. This was the first ruling in Australia that decided that Corbett v. Corbett (UK, 1971) is not persuasive and does not follow Australian law. A major legal precedent.
Rachael says that her own sex affirmation as a woman never stopped her being a father, and she is on good terms with all three children.
More recently Rachael has been attempting to restore the right of trans children to have medical treatment in their teens without first obtaining approval from the Family Court as required in a 2004 ruling.